No 4, 2022

Publishing Date: 2023-01-25


Melkov A.S. The tenth anniversary of “Studia Humanitatis” journal

On the 25th of January 2023 the International Electronic Scientific Journal “Studia Humanitatis” celebrated its tenth anniversary. Over the years the journal has passed an interesting and successful path, having become a recognizable and popular scientific periodical as well in Russia and abroad. At present, the journal has published 820 articles, and its archive consists of 38 issues. The journal has thematic sections on history, pedagogy and teaching methodology, political science and law, psychology, theology, philology and philosophy. For ten years, the journal has been worthily carrying out its noble and important mission, contributing to the development of humanitarian education and science in Russia and overseas. Many of our authors successfully defended their PhD and doctoral dissertations, having published the results of their scientific research on the pages of “Studia Humanitatis”. Symbolically that the current issue of the journal (2022, No 4) has been released on the jubilee of our periodical. This issue consists of twenty articles. Our authors are representatives of educational institutions and scientific organizations of eight countries: Russia, Denmark, Poland, Hungary, Indonesia, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. “Studia Humanitatis” journal is always open for intellectual discussions and exchange of opinions on a wide range of scientific problems.


Fedchenko O.D. The origin of Scandinavia hydronyms: two bases

The article is devoted to the linguistic analysis of Scandinavian hydronyms. The origin of the names of major rivers in Norway and Sweden are considered. It is determined that the etymology of the studied hydronyms has an explanation in the Celtic and Baltic language environment. Moreover, each language area has its own territory of distribution. The names of rivers have an etymology related to such concepts as “a river”, “a riverbed”, “a stream”, “a current”. Hydronyms are represented by the third person singular verb. The proposed article makes it possible to clarify the archaeological and historical aspects of ancient people migration on the Scandinavian Peninsula.

Sharipov M.M. Military-political rivalry of Ghurids with Seljukids in the middle of the 12th century

Designing on the premise of written sources and scientific literature referring to the Soviet and post-Soviet period, the author makes an endeavour to highlight the military-political rivalry between the Tajik state of Ghurids and Seljukids appertaining to the middle of the 12th century and the circumstances of the emergence of Ghurid state, for the first time in historiography. In the middle of the 12th century Ala-ad-Din Husayn as the famous Padishah of Ghurid state liquidated Ghaznavids empire. In addition, Ala-ad-Din managed to achieve independence from the Seljuk state. These factors became the reason for the development of the socio-economic, political and military spheres of Ghurid state. The middle of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th centuries are the heyday of Ghurid state.

Pulkin M.V. Parish chapels between the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 20th centuries (based on the materials of the Olonets diocese)

The article discusses the main problems of chapels’ construction in the Olonets diocese. It is revealed that the building of this type of parish churches has always been associated with numerous difficulties, the number of which, however, was inferior to the difficulties and bureaucratic obstacles associated with the construction of churches. Contemporaries of the events with good reason associated the chapels with the Old Believer ideology. Permit to erect a chapel is conditioned by a number of circumstances. First of all, the remoteness of a number of villages from the parish church and the lack of regular visits to the parish church mattered. Some chapels played the role of monuments about significant events in the life of parishes. Occasionally chapels became significant points of candle trade and contributed to the replenishment of the treasury of parish churches.

Christensen C.S. The Tunguska incident, June 30, 1908: a blast, a meteorite, a comet, or a threat from space

Almost 115 years ago, the very powerful explosion occurred at 7:17 AM in the morning of June 30, 1908 in Central Siberia, 800 km NNW from Lake Baikal and Irkutsk near Podkamennaya Tunguska River. It devastated the forested area of 2150 km2, flattening and scorching some thirty million trees. The object that flew that morning over Siberia is usually designated the Tunguska meteorite or – more cautiously – the Tunguska space body. Certainly, this body was dangerous: the taiga was levelled over an area twice as large as New York City. The whole number of explosion hypotheses reaches a hundred, or so. But few of them have been built according to the standards of science and with consideration of empirical data. The scientific interest stimulated by the Tunguska explosion of 1908 has produced enormous speculation and controversy as to its origin. The theories offered by those who have studied the event range from the realm of science (a meteorite, comet, or nuclear explosion) to the realm of science fiction (a black hole, anti-matter rock, or an alien spacecraft). Each theory has protagonists promoting and defending their point of view considering the evidence. However, because the scientific community did not view the actual event, but only observed the devastating results (it was 19 years after the explosion before the first scientist arrived on the scene), each theory contains speculation. Therefore, before delving into the specifics of each theory, it is important to review the facts of the event.

Ivanov A.M., Kotova E.A. The state of homelessness and juvenile delinquency in 1941-1945 (based on the materials of the Smolensk region)

The article deals with the problems of homelessness that arose during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. The authors study the state of orphanages based on the example of the Vyazma children’s orphanage at the Smolensk region. New archival documents were introduced into scientific circulation, showing the problems of the organization and sanitary condition of children’s educational institutions. Also it was given statistical data on neglected children and adolescents who find themselves in a criminal environment, and on the crimes committed by them. The authors concluded that the state took into account the experience of past wars in order to prevent homelessness and the growth of child crime.

Kozhabergenova A.Y. National cinematography development in Kazakhstan: historiography of the problem

One of the biggest challenges for the peoples of the post-Soviet space became the search and development of national identity. In the Soviet Union cinema has always been an important tool for socialist and communist ideology propaganda, and the government of independent Kazakhstan continued this tradition, but directed it towards new goals. The article analyses studying level of the problem of national cinema development in the Soviet, modern Kazakh and foreign sources. Based on the analysis of existing academic studies of Kazakh cinema, it is made an attempt to trace the development trends of national film art and its relationship with the state policy.


Azis Setyagama, Wawan Susilo. Status of the Corruption Eradication Commission in creating good governance in Indonesia

The Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) was formed in Indonesia in 2003 to address, tackle and eliminate corruption in the country. This Commission was established based on Law of the Republic of Indonesia No 30 of 2002. Eradication of corruption needs to be done, so that the state apparatus can act honestly and not commit illegal acts abusing its official position. In the future, it can create good governance where the state apparatus is free from acts of corruption in carrying out public services. The duties and authorities of the Commission in eradicating acts of corruption are fully regulated in the law. This KPK institution is expected to be able to create a state apparatus that is clean from acts of corruption, and the Commission has a position that can be expected to create good governance in the country.

Vlasova O.Y. Fear dictatorship within the context of information society development

The author’s aim is to understand whether the reverse evolution of a spin dictatorship towards a fear dictatorship is possible within the context of contemporary information society. The article considers approaches to definition of the dictatorship notions of fear and the spin dictatorship. The article analyses positions confirming evolution of dictatorial regimes from dictatorship of fear to its spin type. At the same time, the development of the modern information society is assessed. New fears arising from the development of the information society and the impact of these processes on the level of trust in society are listed and analysed. The author’s assessment confirms the influence of fears in the information society on political and social development in general.


Walczak D. How can a believer understand correctly the thick of scenes and characters? Multi-figure and multi-part compositions in Russian iconography between the 17th and 19th centuries

The paper is devoted to multi-figure and multi-part composition characteristic of Russian icon painting between the 17th and 19th centuries. Icons depicting several saints or scenes from the Holy Scriptures together, or showing several images of the Saviour or the Mother of God at the same time, were placed both in temples and in private households. The author analyses the specific images characteristic of this type of compositions, and presents his own classification of multi-part icons. The paper identifies the causes of multi-figure and multi-part samples appearance of Russian icon painting, and also establishes the connection of this phenomenon with the socio-cultural influence of Western Europe.

Melkov A.S. An essay on the history of the Nativity Alexander-Joseph Brotherhood. Part I

The paper studies the history of the Nativity Alexander-Joseph Brotherhood (1863-1918) – the first charitable church society in pre-revolutionary Russia. The main purpose of the brotherhood was to come to the aid of the poor. Thanks to the care of Fr. Alexander Gumilevsky, known as a cleric of the Nativity Church on Peski, and through the efforts of his followers this purpose was successfully implemented in St. Petersburg for more than fifty years. It is surprising that newer one significant work dedicated to the activities of the Nativity Brotherhood has been presented in modern Russian historiography. This study makes an attempt to fill this gap. Because of the large volume of the material, the paper is divided into two parts. This part describes in detail the history of the creation, discovery and development of the brotherhood for the period of its first 25 years.


Kurulyenok A.A. Igor Dobrodomov’s idea about the umlaut transformation of old Russian vowel phonemes <е> and <ě>

The article deals with a systematic approach to the study of the history of the Old Russian vowel phonemes <e> and <ě>. It is considered from the standpoint of the umlaut transformation idea, expressed by Igor Dobrodomov (1935-2022), professor of the Moscow Pedagogical State University. This leads to a new understanding of some historical and phonetic processes in Russian vocalism, in particular in the front row and middle rise zones. It is claimed that in the Russian language the old phoneme <e> has disappeared, and the old phoneme <ě> has been preserved. The phoneme <ě> has been quantifiably and qualitatively strengthened due to the defonologization of the phoneme <e>.

Dodokhojaeva P.I. The usage of simple Arabisms in “Khamsa” by Khoju Kirmoni (on the example of adjective)

The article dwells on the issue concerned with the level of usage of some simple Arabisms in “Khamsa” by Khoju Kirmoni on the example of adjective. It is underscored that the borrowing of foreign words and the transfer of linguistic elements from one language to another is a two-way linguistic phenomenon inherent in each language. Summing up the results of the analysis on the studied problem, one can come to the conclusion, that the majority of Arabic borrowings in “Khamsa” by Khoju are simple lexemes, which in the text act as nouns, adjectives and adverbs.

Ashrapov B.P. Morphological peculiarities and level of usage of the preposition “bar/on” in Tajik literary language appertaining to the 18th century (on the example of historical writing referred to as “Tuhfat-ul-khoni” by Muhammadvafo Karminagi)

The article under consideration dwells on the issue beset with morphological peculiarities and the level of usage of the preposition “bar” in the Tajik literary language appertaining to the 18th century (on the example of historical writing referred to as “Tuhfat-ul-khoni” by Muhammadvafo Karminagi). It is underscored that in the prosaic literary production belonging to the 17th and 18th centuries the relevant preposition, like today, is primarily resorted to indicate a direction and place. The importance of the theme explored lies in consideration of morphological peculiarities of the preposition “bar” using comparative-historical and statistical methods, determination of its distinguishing peculiarities based on the scientific-historical writing depicting the historical events of various families of the 18th century. Into the bargain, the given proposition participates in the formation of certain composite adverbs and used as a synonym of other original and compound prepositions. It is worth mentioning that the preposition “bar” in the language of “Tuhfat-ul-khoni” is similar to the modern Tajik literary language structurally and grammatically. Adducing the result of the analysis beset with the theme, explored one can conclude the given preposition occurs to the lesser extent in term of its level of usage than other original ones.

Chrul S. Lexical and grammatical transformations in translation: a case of scientific and publicistic text in Russian and Polish languages

The paper is focused on the analysis of lexical and grammatical transformations in the translation of scientific and publicistic text from Russian into Polish. Taking into consideration smaller units within the text, the author insists that the main unit of translation is the text itself, because only with this approach the equivalence of the original and the text of translation is achieved. Considering the text translation peculiarities and problem areas of the book “An inconvenient past. The memory of the state crimes in Russia and other countries” by N. Epple the author urges to choose the strategy of functionally adequate translation, in which it is important to preserve and transmit the dominant message, even if the cultural differences are significant.

Rahimova E.R. Oriental motifs in the novel “Eugene Onegin” by Alexander Pushkin

It is known that the East and the Eastern literature were in the centre of constant attention of Russian readers during the Golden Age of Russian poetry. The researchers of the oriental theme in Alexander Pushkin’s works have noted his deep awareness of the Eastern literature and culture. Pushkin’s novel in verse started by him after his first trip to the North Caucasus was completed after the trip to Turkish Arzurum. Oriental motifs in the novel “Eugene Onegin” by Pushkin are analysed in the article. These motives occupies a certain place in the ideological and artistic structure of the novel in verse, which turned to be a kind of connecting link in Pushkin’s creative comprehension of the East, an important niche between his romantic and realistic works.

Maziarczyk G. “I am with you”: second-person narration in Ron Butlin’s novel “The sound of my voice”

The article analyses the use of second-person narration in Ron Butlin’s first novel “The sound of my voice”. On the basis of narratological studies the author identifies the major features of this experimental narrative mode, in which the protagonist and the addressee are a single character addressed by the second-person pronoun. Butlin’s work employs you in reference to the protagonist, a 34-year-old alcoholic, and the figure of the narrator becomes visible only towards the ending of the novel. The communicative structure of the work reflects the unstable mental state of the protagonist. Second-person narration embodies his split personality, in which “I” and “you” represent different aspects of the same man. His long monologue dramatizes his recovery from self-destructive behaviour through self-acceptance and coming to terms with the past. By putting the reader in the position of a co-witness to this process, “The sound of my voice” develops an evocative depiction of a fractured self.

Markov A.V. “Poems on the Greek language” by Sergey Averintsev as a sum of Russian modernist poetry

An early poetic triptych “Poems on the Greek language” by Sergey Averintsev is a home composition that concisely reproduces both trends and artistic discoveries of symbolism, acmeism and futurism. The Greek language is understood by Averintsev as a special combination of the verbal and the written, with plasticity being ascribed to the written element, while the verbal is understood as theatrical and performative. These elements are reconciled by the special concept of music as the main test for the ancient body. This article reveals verbal, figurative and rhythmic references to various aestheticians of Russian modernism who thematized the symbol and the written sign, and finds hidden allusions to a number of concepts of antiquity, from Nietzsche to Golosowker. This archaeology of allusions clarifies the birth of writing as the main plot of the poem, corresponding to the course of the young author’s acquaintance with the Greek literary tradition.

Nauryz G.O. Transformation of the devil image in heavy music: comparative analysis in the context of metal subgenres

This paper discusses the modification of the Devil image in heavy music. Genre classification involves the study of subgenres of extreme metal music without taking into the types of rock music. Extreme metal differs from the more media genres of metal with a small audience, which makes this genre unpopular in the world music charts. This is the main reason for the disinterest of the academic community in the study of this topic. The main research method is audio-visual analysis. As a historical point, after which the use of the image of the Devil in heavy music became even more popular, is the satanic hysteria in the 1980s. The author made an in-depth analysis of six music tracks belonging to the European and American extreme music industry. As a result of a deep audio-visual analysis, the author came to the following conclusion, that the transformation of the Devil image has acquired a socially significant character due to the threat of a repetition of conflicts between the Church and anti-religious groups of people.


Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. Origin and development of Russian intelligentsia: economic analysis

Economic conditions of Russian intelligentsia origin and formation are analysed in the paper. It is shown that a necessary condition for intelligentsia’s existence is free time, which is spent initially on education, and then on the production of a spiritual product. Initially, within the framework of the Orthodox religion, the Russian intelligentsia begins to form. The development of the Russian intelligentsia is considered in the context of human and social capital. It is proved that in the conditions of a modern market economy there is a decrease in intelligentsia quantity and quality.

Pirozhkova S.V. Patristic anthropology and the future of science

The article offers a brief review of the book “Ambrose of Milan and Aurelius Augustine about soul” by E.P. Aristova, and an interpretation of the significance of this work for the problems of science development and the prospects of European culture. The doctrines on the soul reconstructed by E.P. Aristova set the framework for possible heuristics of thinking about a person in general and about subjectivity in various areas of the socio-cultural process, including the field of scientific, technical and socio-economic policy. The author shows that if the understanding of man as the image of God and, accordingly, as the creator was decisive for the philosophical and scientific thought of early modern period, then the teachings of Ambrose of Milan and Aurelius Augustine reveal the image of a sinner, who is guilty of the world fall and therefore called upon with the help of God to restore the destroyed original order. The article suggests replacing the idea of sin with the idea of responsibility for making decisions with large-scale consequences, while at the same time pointing to the need for existential foundation of the principle of responsibility ‒ the idea of the existential meaning of the actions of an individual, changing the world in a positive or negative direction (good ‒ evil, corruption ‒ chaos, beauty ‒ ugliness). The author claims that the idea of the restoration of the original order corresponds with epistemological realism ‒ as opposed to the idea of voluntaristic (and in this way similar to the divine) creativity, which correlates with epistemological constructivism.