No 1, 2020

Publishing Date: 2020-04-25


Christensen C.S. Civil rights, workers, women, financial figures and the orator, landlord Henry Hunt. The Peterloo Massacre in Manchester on August 16, 1819

On Monday 16 August 1819 perhaps 40-50,000 men, women and children gathered for a mass rally in Manchester. The protesters had progressed to St Peter’s Field from the city’s working-class districts and the surrounding textile weaving regions. Monday was the traditional day off for handloom weavers and other artisan workers, and the marchers wore their best clothes and symbols to create a festive atmosphere. A couple of hours later, soldiers and police had stopped the peaceful demonstration with very harsh methods. This article examines why this incident became one of the most important events in history of democracy in Europe. The author also tries to explain the real causes of the Peterloo Massacre and the historical background of the British society in the beginning of the 1800s from the perspective of Thomas Paine (1737-1809), the English-born American philosopher and political theorist.

Mykhaylenko M.V. Controversy of late industrialization: the land-based empires argument for East Central Europe

The article ponders upon the social science controversy of late industrialization and therefore modernization with concern to imperial nations between the 18th and 20th centuries in an attempt to look for the explanations of why they didn’t fit into both waves of the industrial revolution. The research attempts to consider the case of the states that fell out of the first and second industrial revolutions, but were not the part of the traditionally understood developing world in terms of the difference in capabilities of land-based and naval-based empires. It’s also studied the ability of land-based empires to overcome the modernization challenge and the influence of Eurocentric stereotypes on this discussion. The examples of Habsburg Austria, Romanov Russia, Japan and Turkey are also analyzed. The descriptive comparison points to other factors responsible for relatively laggard modernization of these states.

Pulkin M.V. Chief bailiffs in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Empire police officers during peace and war (by the materials of the Olonets province)

The article discusses the activities of the chief bailiffs, a special significant group of police officers in the counties of the Russian Empire, including its northern outskirts. The main tasks of the bailiffs’ professional activities were to maintain public order, comprehensive control over local residents subordinate to them, monitor the condition of roads and prevent epidemic diseases. As the socio-political life in the country became more complicated, the bailiffs were entrusted with the duty of monitoring the mood prevailing in the territories entrusted to them.

Belyaeva K.V., Buranok S.O. Images of Soviet Russia in the US press in 1921-1922

This article analyses the image of Soviet Russia formed by one of the most influential US newspapers called “The New York Times”. The reconstruction and explanation of this phenomenon will make it possible to understand in more detail the evolution of the US perspective on the Soviet regime. The study has identified three mass media’s points of view on Soviet Russia over the period 1918-1922: the “demonic” image, the “victimized” image and the “neutral” image. Each of the above-mentioned images can be interpreted in different ways; therefore, we have decided to divide them into subcategories which will help us explain these images from every angle. The concept attributed to the “demonic” image includes the media coverage of certain events in Russia through criticizing the Bolsheviks’ tyranny and inhumanity. “The New York Times” noted that they had turned the once great Russian Empire into a country mired in famine, civil war, and havoc. This image can be explored through the following subcategories: 1) Inability of the Soviet government to deal with the civil war and other internal territorial problems on its own. 2) Incompetence in preventing the famine of 1921-1922 and subsequent lack of assistance to victims. The “victimized” image of Soviet Russia prevailed in the US press throughout the peak of the Russian famine of 1921-1922. The “neutral” image of Soviet Russia, its government, and its people brought almost nothing to picture the Red Scare; yet it equally deserves our attention. This image was used by mass media to specify the similarities that the Soviets and other nations shared, and to point out Russia’s desire to work with other countries for the good of the world.

Levin Y.A. The impact of the “Red Scare” and the “Palmer Raids” on FBI policy in the 1920s

The article highlights the changes in the policy of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (until 1935 – Bureau of Investigation). The condemnation of the “Palmer Raids” in mass media and the ensuing negative reaction of the Congress forced the Bureau’s management to operate in secrecy, as after the repeal of martial laws, the organization had lost its legal base to prosecute radicals and presumable spies of other countries, especially those of Soviet Russia. This article provides an analysis of ways that federal agents could proceed with gathering data on the activities of the Communist party in the US under such conditions. Moreover, this article focuses on the role of John Edgar Hoover in these processes during his period as a Deputy Director at the Bureau of Investigation (1921-1924) and at the beginning of his period there as a Director. Finally, it pays special attention to the Bureau’s attempts at cooperation with other services and the Congressional Committee to investigate communist activities in the United States.

Walchak D., Nikolsky E.V. From icon painters to craftsmen, or how Palekh craftsmen turned into souvenir manufacturers after the October Revolution

The article analyses in detail the issues related to the functioning of an art center in Palekh and studies the main milestones in the development of Palekh icon painting before the Revolution. The authors thoroughly study the process of former icon painters’ transformation into manufacturers of souvenirs after the October Revolution. Moreover, the article indicates the main stylistic similarities between Palekh icon painting of the 19th century and Palekh lacquer miniatures of the Soviet period.


Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. Destructive elements in pedagogical innovations

The article proves the idea of the destructive elements’ presence in any pedagogical innovation. It contains a comparative analysis of innovation activities in economy and education, and examples from different areas of modern pedagogical activity where innovations do more harm than good. Moreover, it substantiates the idea that innovative education is the most in demand under conditions of advanced market economies.

Moskalenko M.R. The development of industrial civilization and its study in the humanities courses

This article covers a study of the industrial civilization phenomenon in courses on history, cultural studies, philosophy and political science for pupils and students. It focuses on features of industrial society development which students need to know in order to get a holistic picture of historical and cultural processes. Moreover, this article shows the relationship between the development of industrial society and the formation of political ideologies as well as provides advisories to help teachers explain these aspects to students. Addressing ways of explaining the specifics of Russian industrial society development to students is another major focus of this article.

Bredikhina I.A., Markova E.V. On the question of didactic features of written tests with a freely constructed answer

The article addresses didactic possibilities of written tests with a freely constructed answer on the example of school final exams in Russia, England and Spain. The authors analyse and compare existing criteria for the evaluation of writing in foreign language, their advantages and disadvantages. The conclusion notes the pragmatic orientation of lingua didactic written tests, emphasizes their pedagogic, evaluative and general educational significance.


Staniszewska A. The development and cultural significance of diplomatic etiquette and protocol in Europe

The paper studies the historical and cultural foundations of the development of diplomatic etiquette and protocol in Europe. The author considers diplomatic etiquette as an important component of European civilization’s cultural heritage. At the same time it is noted, that the basics of diplomatic protocol were formed under the influence of national cultures of European peoples. The ceremonial norms have formed centuries-old customary traditions and they have established themselves in practice of diplomatic relations between states, being today an important component of European diplomacy.

Maryin E.V. On some aspects of economic and legal regulation of Church property during the period of Soviet State foundation and development

The article analyses the regulation of property relations between religious organizations and the Soviet government. Immediately after the establishment of Soviet power all the property of religious organizations was nationalized. The Russian Orthodox Church was deprived of almost all legal rights, especially land ownership. During and after the Great Patriotic War the situation changed slightly for the better. So the Church was allowed to own a certain kind of property on contractual relations with the Soviet government.

Iskuzhina N.G., Salikhova E.A. Legal and regulatory framework for ethno-cultural education in the Republic of Bashkortostan

The article addresses specific issues in the development of ethno-cultural education as a factor in strengthening the unity of nations of the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB). The purpose of the research is to consider certain aspects of the legal and regulatory framework for ethno-cultural education in the RB as a factor in strengthening the unity of nations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and construction of personal ethno-cultural identity. The article emphasizes the specificity of the linguistic situation in the RB and the factors affecting its dynamics, it also provides statistical data which determines the legal and regulatory framework for modern education in the RB. According to the authors, the content of ethno-cultural education is determined by social demand of ethno-community regarding the educational system and the specifics of a particular ethnic culture, as well as the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard for the results of personal mastering the comprehensive school curriculum. In this case, it is determined by the criteria for the construction of ethno-cultural identity. The main purpose of the research is to prove that the uniqueness of Russian society will be perceived only if a person recognizes themselves as a bearer of ethnic culture, a member of a multinational community. To achieve this, it is important to make sure that the value-motivational core of a person’s self-consciousness consists not only of the national values, but also of ethno-cultural ones. Only then can all-Russian values be perceived as a natural continuation and condition of ethnic ones and will not be counterpoised to them. The conclusion notes the relevance of the development of the modern concept for the ethno-cultural education development.

Tomilov I.S. Finance in deputy elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation of 7th convocation

Financial support for elections is one of the most important factors affecting the results of election campaigns. This category includes not only the actual budget costs of the campaign, but also various sources of funding for political groups and their candidates. This article analyzes the funds that are directly related to the election of the State Duma of the Russian Federation of the 7th convocation (2016). The article also focuses on the allocation of public funds to pay for votes cast for the parties that were elected to the Parliament. This procedure provided for by law is carried out after the final vote count and the end of the election. Nevertheless, it is an important element of the electoral system and a significant source of additional funding for political groups.

Sazonova O.A. The right to asylum. A draft federal law “On temporary and political asylum”

The article notes the current gap in Russian law – there is no legal basis for foreign citizens to exercise their right to asylum in Russia. In this article, the expediency of improvement of the considered institution’s legal regulation is emphasized. It is noted that it is the law that serves as a basis for human rights regulation in the vast majority of cases. Based on the results of their research, the author proposes their own draft federal law on temporary and political asylum granted by the Russian Federation.

Makarenko E.A. The main directions of development of the corporate property insurance process in the area of public procurement in Russia

This article includes studies on current list of risks of corporate property insurance contracts. The author examined the main risks which the policyholder bears when conducting electronic auctions for insurance under existing legislation. This article provides a number of consequences of the use of only customer’s pricing orientation when carrying out procurement, and also shares a detailed list of risks for insurance contracts and ways to improve transparency in insurance business.


Staniszewska Ż. Stress, person, personality. From distress to eustress

This article analyses problems of human response to stressors and ways to overcome distress. The article pays special attention to the psychological aspect of stress as an adaptive response to various types of stimuli. The author distinguishes several psychological types of stress and provides a brief description of the psychophysiology of stress. Moreover, the article considers the role and capabilities of a human body as a self-regulating adaptive system. Also, the author presents the concept of distress and eustress as possible factors in personal growth.


Karikov S.A. The formation of the Evangelical Church organization in Braunschweig in the late 1520s to the first half of the 1550s

The article considers the problem of the Evangelical Church institutions formation in Braunschweig as part of Lutheran confessionalization. This article analyses the principles and main tasks of the Church organization’s activity in the confessional era. It also defines the main features of Braunschweig churches’ activities, educational programs in schools, and means of control over their activities carried out by the authorities. In conclusion, the article notes that the principles of the Reformation in Braunschweig in the late 1520s to the first half of the 1550s became primarily a means of resolving political and administrative issues.

Mai K Da. Issues of Protestantism’s dialogue with ancestor worship religious belief in Vietnam

The ancestor worship is seen as the cause of deep contradiction between the Protestant doctrine and the traditional Vietnamese culture. Vietnamese Protestants recognized the need to relate their faith and religious practice to categories of the national culture. Therefore, the search for an alternative form of the ancestor worship for Vietnamese Protestants is very relevant. The basis for establishing a connection between the Protestant doctrine and the spiritual life of the Vietnamese people is the openness of religious consciousness. This article analyzes the dialogue options between Protestantism and the ancestor worship in Vietnam. This dialogue should not lead to confrontation, but to enrich the Vietnamese spiritual culture.


Syrotinа O.O. The metaphorical way of term formation in modern English terminology of biotechnologу

The article considers the analysis of the metaphorical way of terminological units’ formation in modern English terminology in the field of biotechnology. The research contains the types of metaphor formation and the analysis of their models. The author reveals the sources of metaphorical nominations in the field of biotechnology. The article studies the definitions of examined terms of biotechnology, defines lexical meanings of source-words and their semantic components participating in the meaning conveying. It also highlights the most common forms of metaphors. This article reveals that anthropomorphic metaphorization is one of the most effective ways of term formation in English terminology of biotechnology.

Rozhkov Y.H. The synonymy in English terminological field of “animal diseases”

The article considers the study of the synonymy phenomenon in English terminological field of “animal diseases”. The author highlights and analyses the main types of synonymy in the examined terminology and characterises structural features of terminological synonymic rows. The article also provides a detailed analysis of absolute/relative synonyms. It discovers that terms with different structure form synonymous relations. These terms are mainly one-word and two-component terms, and synonyms represented by terms and corresponding abbreviations or eponyms.

Kim Y.A., Mekhtiev V.G. Dynamization of traditional motifs in Mikhail Lermontov’s youthful poems called “Azrail” and “The Angel of Death”

The article studies the problems associated with the functioning of traditional motifs in Mikhail Lermontov’s youthful poetry, which undergo changes gradually and persistently while being entirely consistent with the author’s personal task. The motifs of suffering, pilgrimage, fate, life and death, which are well-known in romantic poetry, when included in the associative area of the verbal context, become subject to the dynamism principle and acquire new meanings, which are understandable and productive only in the artistic world of a Russian poet. The article provides a structural-semantic analysis of “Azrail” and “The Angel of Death” poems built on the binary “life and death” opposition, which is creatively interpreted by Lermontov.


Kretova V.E., Khomutova N.N. Old age, friendship and duties in Marcus Tullius Cicero’s philosophy

In the modern world, age is deemed old from the age of seventy-six. An ancient Roman orator, politician and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero was reasoning about the full-scale old age in his essay “On Old Age. On Friendship. On Duties”. In Romans’ opinion, among whom was Cicero, the process of ageing starts at forty-six years old and it is the people of this age who are the main topic of Cicero’s essay.

Zherebtsova V.V., Khomutova N.N. The topic of conflict and reconciliation in Russian philosophy

The article investigates the development of personality in the conflict of interest between personality and society in the context of prevailing traditions and norms. It also studies the intrapersonal struggle of a person and the reconciliation process, which plays an important role in the formation of the personality. The article studies the topic of conflict and reconciliation in Russian philosophy on the basis of the novel “Crime and Punishment” by Fyodor Dostoevsky and Nikolai Berdyaev’s philosophy.

Anikin D.A. Commemoration of the Great Patriotic War as a symbolic resource: peculiarities of functioning in the religious community

The article analyses religious communities as subjects of symbolic and memory policies. The author talks about the competition for acquisition of limited symbolic resources using the example of exploitation of the Great Patriotic War commemoration by different religious communities in modern Russia. This competition leads to the symbolic transcoding of the military past, anchored in the formation of new sense models and memorial practices referring to pre-revolutionary patterns. A significant example of the pre-revolutionary memorial practices’ reconstruction is the building of the Main Cathedral of the Russian Armed Forces.