No 4, 2021

Publishing Date: 2022-01-25

HISTORY

Leonov D.E. Rules for Deanery Councils in the Yaroslavl Diocese (a historical source publication)

The author presents the publication of the historical source “Rules for Deanery Councils in the Yaroslavl Diocese”. The text of the document was published in 1903 as a limited edition. Now this text is inaccessible to a wide range of readers. Historical background and comments are prepared. Deanery Councils are characterized as bodies of church self-government that performed the functions of a court of first instance when considering minor offenses among the clergy and civil disputes.

Belonogova J.I., Melkov A.S. Nicholas II abdication the throne: historical truth and myths

The given book is a collection of the main biographical materials devoted to the life and activity of the great Russian surgeon Nikolai Pirogov. The compilers of the collection tried to show the famous N. Pirogov from a poorly known side, unique materials were published showing the scientist as a religious thinker, philosopher and teacher. The book includes essays and articles by people of the “wonderful doctor’s” time – famous public figures, clergymen, theologians and philosophers who introduce the readers with N. Pirogov personality in the context of his religious and philosophical views. Among them it is necessary to mention A.F. Koni, S.L. Frank, Archpriest V.V. Zenkovsky, Archbishop John (Shahovskoy) and others. The collection was prepared under the editorship of Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences Yuri Shevchenko (Archimandrite George). This outstanding cardiac surgeon of our days managed to present N. Pirogov as a deep Orthodox believer, philosopher and thinker moved in his professional activity by Christian virtue and high moral principles. From such point of view, the great Russian surgeon is studied in our modern science almost for the first time. Much material given in the publication was previously published only in pre-revolutionary Russia, having become a bibliographic rarity nowadays. The most important source for studying the philosophical and theological views of the scientist is N. Pirogov’s diary, a comprehensive analysis of which is given in the reviewed publication.

Badanov V.G. Library and educational activity of zemstvo in the Olonets province (1908-1917)

The article examines the Olonets province territorial institutions (zemstvo) activities in creating a network of rural libraries and reading libraries. The whole complex of library and educational work is analysed as the most important zemstvo institutions component of extracurricular education. The author addresses the problem of zemstvo people’s libraries structure, their financial support, and examines their features and characteristic features. The zemstvo library network system, types and forms of territorial institutions libraries are considered. The Olonets province territorial institutions activity with confidence can be considered as the first experience in accessible library creating on Russian North. The zemstvo laid the foundations of subsequent librarianship in Russia.

Ovchinnikov D.P. “The application point of all Russian patriots’ forces” or Germans accomplices: white emigrants about the Russian Corps in the Balkans (1941-1945).

The article gives the perception of the Russian Protective Corps by representatives of the White émigré in 1941-1945 and in the post-war period. The source is based on emigrants memoirs, correspondence, periodicals, documentation of individual organizations including stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. Grounded on these materials, the author shows the peculiarities of the Russian Corps perception by white emigrants. The documents analysis allows drawing a conclusion about the polarity of opinions even among the irreconcilable part of the emigration.

Ivanov A.M., Yagneshko M.V. The Smolensk region economy by the beginning of radical economic transformations in 1985-1991

Since the beginning of the 1990s radical transformations started in Russia after the Perestroika carried out in the previous few years. Their dynamics and results were determined to a certain extent by the socio-economic processes that developed in the pre-reform period in the country as a whole and at the regional level in particular. The authors investigate the Smolensk region economy condition, the population dynamics of income, analyse the negative changes that have accumulated in the socio-economic sphere of the region by the end of 1991.

Christensen C.S. Pseudohistory or pseudoscience and appropriating history in the 21st century: the dangers, the meanings, the influence and the communication of history

One of the most important developments in the production of history in the early 21st century has been the capacity of pseudoscience to have a large impact on the public sphere. Pseudohistory and pseudoscience mimic professional history in the way that it presents itself to the public, but the proposed arguments defy any reasonable assessment of the evidence. In this article we examine the phenomenon of pseudohistory or pseudoscience through a consideration of its origins in a traveller’s tale “1421 – the year China discovered the World” by Gavin Menzies; through a description about ancient astronauts and their influence on antique technologies and on building of pyramids in “Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved mysteries of the past” by the Swiss Erich von Däniken and Holocaust denials and anti-Semitic pseudohistory / history falsification in the book “Hitler’s War” by David Irving. One can eventually attribute pseudohistorians popular success to their capacity to appeal to both democratic principles and nationalism, and to make effective use of new media, especially the Internet.

PEDAGOGY and TEACHING METHODOLOGY

Maryin E.V. On some aspects of distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic

As the world is currently facing novel challenges and rapidly changing technologies, the future of higher education seems to be extremely problematic. The culmination of online learning, the significant decline in student enrolment, and growing concerns about student debt have disrupted traditional educational models and raised important questions on the future of education. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic higher education around the world has undergone some global transformations. Universities en masse began to introduce distance learning. But what are the long-term consequences of these new practices?

Kubanov R.A. Content and innovative methods of feedback organization in “a teacher – students” dual configuration

The study defines the content and pedagogical feasibility of using innovative methods of feedback organizing in “a teacher – students” dual configuration. This is facilitated by the systematic application of numerous innovative methods: “It’s in my palm”, “Scale” and “The group diary”. The author notes that it is important to use the entire arsenal of didactic feedback possibilities at various stages of the educational process. According to the author, the psychological feedback mechanism in the conditions of teacher and students joint activity has significant features due to the place of the task within the framework of student activities. For example, emotional feedback is established by the teacher within the context of general mood picture of the group, the student’s behavior, and emotional reactions to individual tasks. Summing up the results, the author comes to the conclusion that with the help of feedback, the positive dynamics of the educational process is ensured and its main goal is realized as the formation of a comprehensively and harmoniously developed student’s personality.

Danilina N.I. Interactive methods in teaching Latin to medical students

The article analyses interactive methods in teaching Latin to medical students. The material of the study is the author’s pedagogical experience and the colleagues published experience. The author believes that interactivity is a bidirectional process: competition and cooperation. The competitive component is implemented mainly in game techniques while the cooperative component is implemented in group techniques. According to the interaction partner, interactive methods are divided into subject-subject and information-communication methods. Not all techniques of the interactive method are equally effective when learning Latin. In classroom there are effective games that do not require much time. They can be used both to consolidate new material, and to control the assimilation and development of skills. In extracurricular activity, the project method, creative tasks, and team games are effective. The use of distance technologies requires discipline on the part of students, so for the purposes of training, information technologies should be combined with traditional ones and students should be supervised in full-time format. In extracurricular activity, information technologies provide ample opportunities for both teachers, who organize teaching to motivate studying the subject in depth, and students, who successfully realize their own abilities and ambitions by participating in project activities, intellectual competitions and the Olympiads.

POLITOLOGY and LAW

Budi Hariyanto, Azis Setyagama. Application of the alternative dispute resolution model as dispute settlement between investors with the Indonesian government

Investment activities are so large in Indonesia. Both domestic and foreign investment can trigger disputes in implementation in the field, especially between pre-investors and the government. These disputes are caused by differences of opinion or interests of each party, both investors and the Indonesian government. Under Indonesian Law, if there is a dispute between investors and the government, it can be pursued in two ways, namely legal channels through courts and deliberation through arbitration. Present paper is a normative legal research studying the provisions of the law, in this case Law Number 25 of 2007 concerning Investment, especially Article 32. In the event of a dispute in the field of investment between the government and investors, the parties must first resolve this dispute through deliberation and consensus. The results of the study indicate that it is better to settle disputes between investors and the Indonesian government by means of deliberation through arbitration rather through legal channels in the court.

Chunikhina T.N. Educational institution policy in the field of preventing and resolving ethical conflicts (on the example of codes on corporate culture of higher educational institutions in Krasnodar)

The presented work provides a legal assessment of the provisions of the codes of corporate ethics and culture of three higher educational institutions in Krasnodar. The article considers the problems of preventing and resolving conflict situations arising in law enforcement practice as well as emphasises the importance of adherence to the norms of corporate ethics as a key factor in uniting employees of an educational institution into a single social organism ensuring the effective implementation of the educational process. By establishing measures of incentives and penalties the university community forces its members to comply with the formally enshrined corporate morality. The author draws attention to the fact that the bases of the organization’s successful activities are corporate values and traditions that ensure harmonious, trusting, respectful relationships within the team.

PSYCHOLOGY

Golubeva E.V. Personality orientation of teenagers and their parents

The article deals with the problem of relationship between personality orientation of parents and their adolescent children. The theoretical analysis of the problem showed that the personality orientation may be determined by the dominant system of humanistic or pragmatic content motives. The role of the orientation of the parents’ personality in the moral development of children lies in the actualization of the child’s internal moral stimuli. An empirical study made it possible to establish that the dominant motives in adolescents, which determine the orientation of their personality, generally correspond to the personality orientation of their parents.

Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. Economic psychology and problems of modern education

The article studies the role of economic psychology for modern education as well as its relationship with behavioural psychology. The emphasis is made on the analysis of two human mind systems in the context of pedagogical problems. From thee psychological point of view such social factors as trust and fairness are considered. The value of the money illusion in “economic person” psychology studding is shown.

THEOLOGY

Melkov A.S. Priest Alexander Gumilevsky –  an organizer of parish charity in Saint Petersburg

The article is devoted to studying parish charity as a phenomenon of religious life in St. Petersburg in the middle of the 19th century. The author thoroughly describes the life and activity of priest Alexander Gumilevsky (1830-1869) known as the Church of the Nativity on Peski cleric, and his contribution to the formation and pastoral care of the Holy Cross and the Nativity communities of Sisters of Mercy. There studied in detail the history of the creation and development of various parish charity forms under the leadership of Fr. Alexander, including a shelter for poor children and seniors, as well as the Nativity Brotherhood, the first charitable church society in Russia. The main purpose of the brotherhood was to come to the aid of the poor, and thanks to Fr. Alexander’s and his assistants’ trying was successfully realised in grate scale. By his tireless pastoral effort, works of mercy and charity, the foundation of the fraternal shelter for the poor and the Brotherhood itself, priest Alexander Gumilevsky won truly general love and deep respect among the people of St. Petersburg.

Walczak D. Icon in a shining framework in every house. Riza-covered (folezh) icons in Russia at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

Riza-covered or foil covered (“folezh”) icon with faces and hands painted according to a template decorated with a stamped metal frame became a symbol of the Russian icon painting crisis at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. According to the established scientific tradition their appearance was a response on the part of artisan icon painters to the distribution of cheap printed icons. The purpose of this article is to prove that the emergence of the riza-covered icons is not a process that could start “from below”, but they were spread by large factories (first of all, the icon factories of Vassily Krestyaninov). The author points out the reasons for the riza-covered images and also establishes an ideological connection between the “folezh” icon and the Byzantine and Old Russian icon decoration traditions.

Belonogova J.I. Book review: “Righteous and Wonderful doctor Nikolai Pirogov: medic, scientist, teacher, philosopher and religious thinker (materials for canonization)”

The given book is a collection of the main biographical materials devoted to the life and activity of the great Russian surgeon Nikolai Pirogov. The compilers of the collection tried to show the famous N. Pirogov from a poorly known side, unique materials were published showing the scientist as a religious thinker, philosopher and teacher. The book includes essays and articles by people of the “wonderful doctor’s” time – famous public figures, clergymen, theologians and philosophers who introduce the readers with N. Pirogov personality in the context of his religious and philosophical views. Among them it is necessary to mention A.F. Koni, S.L. Frank, Archpriest V.V. Zenkovsky, Archbishop John (Shahovskoy) and others. The collection was prepared under the editorship of Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences Yuri Shevchenko (Archimandrite George). This outstanding cardiac surgeon of our days managed to present N. Pirogov as a deep Orthodox believer, philosopher and thinker moved in his professional activity by Christian virtue and high moral principles. From such point of view, the great Russian surgeon is studied in our modern science almost for the first time. Much material given in the publication was previously published only in pre-revolutionary Russia, having become a bibliographic rarity nowadays. The most important source for studying the philosophical and theological views of the scientist is N. Pirogov’s diary, a comprehensive analysis of which is given in the reviewed publication.

PHILOLOGY

Chrul S. The concept of “brother” in Russian language and culture

The concept of “brother” is one of the most important in Slavonic languages and cultures and has some specific properties, both linguistic and non-linguistic. The proposed paper is based on the concept of “brother” analysis and presents its evolution in the broader context of Russian culture. The author proposes a cognitive definition of the concept of “brother”, which consists of 14 facets. The concept is universal, with a wide synonymous range and stylistic diversity (from the high style of church sermons to criminal jargon), as well as a high value position (brother and brotherhood are more valuable than any material wealth). The author considers the forced society secularization during the Soviet era, the erosion of family values and life criminalization in the USSR and Russia to be the main reasons for the evolution of the concept.

Demchenko Y.O. Pushkin’s influence on Pushkin (Silvio and Salieri. Geniuses and villains)

This article attempts to categorise the markers stating the similarity of the characters by Alexander Pushkin – Silvio and Salieri. Similar examples from the texts are compared situationally, chronologically and structurally. The story “Shot” and the little tragedy “Mozart and Salieri” were written by Pushkin during the famous period of the “Boldin autumn” (1830). Accordingly, the analysed material allows us to consider how the texts of the same author interact during the creative process revealing the nature of intertextuality.

PHILOSOPHY

Beshenich C. Utilitarianism: its history and modern appearances

As a philosophy, utilitarianism seeks to affect the greatest amount of happiness for the largest number of people. Historically, utilitarianism has undergone numerous changes which have developed the path to this goal. In modern times, utilitarianism can be seen in newer philosophies, such as the Effective altruism movement. This philosophical and social movement recognizes the goal of bringing about the greatest happiness and projects it to the global scale. In doing so, Effective altruism hopes to alleviate some of the most critical problems facing humanity.

Golovashina O.V. The elusive object: the study of regional historical memory in modern Russian studies

In the article the author pays attention to the need of studying the regional aspects of historical memory. Based on the constructivist interpretation of historical memory, the author analyses which factors led to the current situation: a high degree of centralization of the system of humanitarian and social education; centralization in the media; the absence or weak influence of local institutions of historical memory broadcasting; low social demand for regional content about the past. The author proposes to change the optics of the study of regional history, abandoning the installations of conditional “local history”, from the position of which the region appears as one of the “edges” of the state. To do this, it is necessary to develop regional tourism and branding of individual territories, increase the recognition of visual images associated with the specifics of the region, and use the resources of family memory.