No 4, 2021

Publishing Date: 2022-04-25

GREETINGS FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Melkov A.S. “Studia Humanitatis” journal in 35 issues: history and current stage of its development

The thirty fifth issue of the International Electronic Scientific Journal “Studia Humanitatis” (2022, № 1) has been published. Since the period of nine years passed after the foundation in 2013 the periodical has made a serious road of formation and progressive development. During this time we have published 764 papers and reviews in the humanities – history, pedagogy and teaching methodology, politology and law, psychology, theology, philology, philosophy. The main aim of the journal is rendering assistance in the development of humanitarian education and science in Russia and abroad. One of the main purposes of “Studia Humanitatis” is the implementation of the international exchange of scientific knowledge, cooperation with national and foreign academic and educational centers with the aim of developing further integration in the field of humanitarian studies. The International Electronic Scientific Journal “Studia Humanitatis” is an interactive platform for discussing topical issues related to the development of modern humanities. The periodical is open for intellectual discussions and exchange of opinions among authors on a wide range of scientific problems.

HISTORY

Arsenev V.I. The Renaissance of the 12th century: the “liberal arts” and a treatment by Martianus Capella

The article analyses the issues of education in Western Europe in the 12th century. The changes in the medieval society, which were reflected in the learning process of the intellectual elite, are described and analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the preservation of the significance of the pedagogical heritage of Martianus Capella. In addition, the author identifies the main directions for the further development of medieval education.

Pulkin M.V. Construction of parish churches in the 18th – early 20th centuries: problems of legislative regulation (by the materials of the Olonets diocese)

The article deals with the main problems of the evolution of the order of construction of parish churches. It was revealed that the main trend in the regulation of the construction of churches on the territory of the Olonets diocese, as well as throughout the country, was the growing control from the spiritual and secular authorities. The main goal of progressive supervision was the unification of the appearance of the church building. The second significant trend was the gradual increase in the role of the merchant class in financing the construction of churches, while undoubtedly preserving the order of building churches inherited from the past at the expense of the parish. Ultimately, the construction of temples reflects the complex process of finding a compromise between tradition and legislation, the need to build churches at the expense of the parishioners and the administrative containment of their initiative based on the possibilities of fully providing the clergy of the future church.

Lyubushkin A.D. “On a skinny horse in bad weather…”: the problem of availability of land medical care in Russia at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries (according to the data of the Tula province)

The article discusses the evolution of “accessibility” concept in zemstvo medicine at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The main theoretical approaches to the definition of this concept at different stages of the development of medical thought are analysed. In the course of the study, the stages of this issue elaboration by the medical intelligentsia at the turn of the centuries were identified. On the example of zemstvo medicine in the Tula province (a typical province of central Russia), it is shown how ambiguously theoretical provisions were implemented in zemstvo practice.

Tsverianashvili I.A. 1949 conference in Lake Success as a stage in the international environmental cooperation formation

The article deals with a little-studied and rarely mentioned in Russian historiography UN conference for the conservation and utilization of resources, held in 1949 at the place of the future headquarters of this international organization station in the New York suburb of Lake Success. This international forum was one of the first global events that touched upon the problem of consumption and finiteness of natural resources. This conference was rightly proclaimed as an alliance between the UN and the world of science, and one can express regret that the decisions of this conference were not fully implemented.

PEDAGOGY and TEACHING METHODOLOGY

Dvornichenko G.V., Loshadkin D.A., Temkin I.M., Yakunin N.I. Interrelation of physical fitness level and the qualification level of military service radio engineering specialties

The conducted research and the obtained results indicate that the specialists of radio engineering specialties of military units of air defense and missile defense are dominated by a mixed type of physical activity and military-professional activity. Based on the dynamics analysis of development level of power indicators among specialists of the indicated profile, who graduated the faculty of starting, technological and power equipment of a military high school of air defense, it was found that the results of military personnel up to the age of thirty are quite stable, and then begin to decline. The authors concluded that the construction of an optimal vector of physical training in the conditions of combat training activities carried out as part of an internship contributes to increase the level of military-professional and physical fitness of servicemen.

Leonenko E.G., Moskalenko M.R., Yudin I.V. Territorial branch of the university as a center for the development of classical education in small towns

The article discusses the specifics of the educational activities of the university the territorial branch in a small town as a center for the development of classical education. The place and role of universities in the development of small towns is being studied. Territorial branches of universities can act as a kind of “points of growth” of their development, performing important social tasks: raising the cultural and educational level of the population, training personnel, attracting socially active youth, preserving the cultural heritage of the city, etc. Also, such branches can create and maintain a kind of socio-psychological environment of the classical university with its values of scientific knowledge and intellectual creativity. Summing up the study, the authors offer their own options for improving the educational process in the territorial branches of universities.

Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. The problem of educational workers’ professional well-being

The article analyses the problem of educational workers’ professional well-being in a modern market economy. The authors identified the economic prerequisites for the professional well-being universities teaching staff. The emphasis is made on the growth of competition in the professional environment and the intensification of labour. Issues related to the inflation of professional knowledge and skills, constant modernization, educational and administrative workload of teachers, etc. are also considered.

POLITOLOGY and LAW

Vlasova O.Y. The public support of violence phenomenon through the prism of the just world conception

In the conditions of information overabundance raises the question about the possibilities of a person and a citizen attitude forming to socially significant events. If in the previous century the justification of violence in society was often reduced to propaganda as the only source of information for citizens, then today the number of information sources makes one wonder, why propaganda has not lost its relevance and why people still justify unjust violence, despite access to alternative sources of information? In this article special attention is paid to the psychological concept of a “just world”, which along with the analysis of authoritarian government activity is able to explain the phenomena of citizen behaviour in the presence of state and public violence. To what extent is the human psyche ready for the realization of unfair and illogical world circumstances, and what factors contribute to this process? The author tried to find answers to these questions in this article.

Sazonova O.A. Public administration in the migration sphere: main mechanisms

The article reveals the features of the mechanism of public administration in the field of migration in modern conditions. The author considers the main characteristics and structure of the control mechanism. It is emphasized that migration policy is one of the priorities in the activities of the state. The author comes to the conclusion that the management of migration processes is focused on improving the measures of responsibility for violation of migration legislation, the development and implementation of regulatory legal acts aimed at the effective regulation of migration.

PSYCHOLOGY

Malakhova O.N., Mosina L.S. Development of educational motivation in higher school: research accents

The article studies the issue of the psychological and pedagogical phenomenon of students’ educational motivation development in modern higher education. It is noted that this process is accompanied by a decrease in interest in learning; this causes confusion and actualizes the problem. Based on the relevant scientific literature analysis the peculiarity of the modern consideration vector of the topic is determined, the authors attempt to identify a number of factors in the educational motivation development and indicate the direction of further research. In conclusion, it is possible to involve a young person in the learning process, to develop educational motivation with the live participation of an experienced and personally mature teacher. First of all, this manifests by the ability to provide effective cognitive and emotional feedback to the student, which is the basis for the development of professional competencies and harmony of the individual as a whole in the conditions of the education system digitalization.

THEOLOGY

Walczak D. Fire faith: images of fire on old belief icons

The article is devoted to the images of fire in the Russian Old Believer icon painting of the 18th-19th centuries. The author analyzes the main iconographic scenes where this motif appears – “Seen as Fire” Mother of God, Archangel Michael-Voivode, Synaxis of the Archangel Michael, Sophia the Wisdom of God, the Burning Bush, the Fiery Ascent of the Prophet Elijah and others. The method of depicting fire and flames, as well as the functions of this motif, is considered. The connection of this motive with the Old Believer ideology is established.

PHILOLOGY

Zenchenko E.O., Shushmarchenko E.A. The emotive component of Nikolay Kolyada speech portrait

The paper aims to define the role of the emotions in speech of a famous Russian dramaturge Nikolay Kolyada. The authors describe examples of emotive lexis and representations in the video interview. The scientific novelty of the research is the systematisation and interconnection of verbal and nonverbal components of emotion in Kolyada’s speech. To overview, dramaturge’s speech has a lot of emotive words and collocations that play an important role in formation of the speech portrait and help to define the entire image and the concept of a creative person.

Bragova A.M., Kuznetsova A.V. To the essence of Medea image in the eponymous tragedy by Euripides

The article is devoted to the analysis of Medea image in eponymous tragedy by Euripides. The authors conclude that the tragedy created the image of a woman with a tragic fate and a passionate nature. The heroine of the tragedy is not ready to put up with fate and therefore begins to fight for justice and self-respect. By her act (killing children out of jealousy for her husband), Medea proves the power of a woman and points to her lack of femininity, which should be expressed in humility, meekness, faith, hope and love. In this regard, the image of Medea is a symbol of evil and the dark sides of the female essence.

Krylova M.N. Modern artistic literature about the village: geographical aspect

The article examines modern literature about the village from the point of view of the place of birth of the authors and the place of action in their works. The purpose of the article was to identify the features of modern prose about the countryside, determined by the geography of their creation. The research was carried out using historical-genetic, sociological, biographical, descriptive and other methods. The greatest attention was paid to the works by V.V. Lichutin, B.P. Ekimov, A.V. Novoseltsev, A.G. Bayborodin, M.A. Tarkovsky, V.O. Avchenko, L. Beloivan and others, and the analysis was carried out from the point of view of reflection in the prose of the authors' data on geographical realities and a special local perception of reality. It is noted that many components of the narrative depend on geographic affiliation, which influences the formation of a specific picture of the world of a particular writer, on his social and life experience, largely related to his place of residence. The strongest segment of modern literature about the village is the northern text, which is demonstrated by the following of writers who turned to the theme of the village, the traditions of “village prose”. In addition, the literature about the village, created in the south of Russia, in Siberia and the Far East, is highlighted. It is concluded that in the literature about the village, the geographical factor turns out to be very strong and more significant than in other thematic layers of modern Russian literature, since it is in the texts about the village that authors are most focused on expressing their geographical preferences, analysing reality that has a local colouring. Geographical realities shape the originality of works about the modern village and create a unique context for their creation.

PHILOSOPHY

Beshenich C. Teaching philosophy in modern times: an approach based on Hugh St. Victor

Teaching is always difficult no matter what the subject. So finding a wise and effective teaching method may be challenging for any teacher. Thus, the medieval method of Hugh St. Victor (1096-1141) could be interesting for modern teachers of philosophy who want to demonstrate to their students that philosophy is applicable to their lives and remains relevant. Hugh St. Victor’s method focused on studying how “to read well” and how to practice what was read. And from this idea the philosopher strove to form the student intellectually to re-discover the knowledge humans lost after the fall in the Garden of Eden.

Christensen C.S. Wassily Kandinsky and birth of abstract art in Munich in the 1910s

Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) is credited as one of the pioneers of abstraction in western art. His creation of abstract work followed a long period of development of creative thought, based on his artistic experiences. Kandinsky was a pioneer, and all forms of abstract painting there is scarcely one that he himself did not initiate and experiment with. Wassily Kandinsky was progressing from lyrical outbursts of colour, a symbiosis of poems and paintings to a simple flawless architectural organization and a rigorous form. Kandinsky’s work steadily and harmoniously gathered and spiritual power until it rose at last to a great cosmic synthesis. In this article we will analyse the emergence of abstract art in the period 1910-1914 and Wassily Kandinsky’s influence on that process. Among other things through an analysis of a group of artists “Der Blaue Reiter” (The Blue Rider) including Wassily Kandinsky, August Macke, Paul Klee, and Franz Marc. Wassily Kandinsky was a kind of original source and inspiration for modern art, and he never felt himself bound by a rigid discipline, but aimed at extending the field of art to include all orders of knowledge.