No 4, 2019

Publishing Date: 2020-01-25


Pulkin M.V. Evolution of gender relationships in the traditional culture between the 18th and 19th centuries (on materials of the European North of Russia)

The article discusses the main problems associated with the status of women in the traditional, but gradually undergoing, ever deeper modernization of the culture of the northern outskirts of the Russian state. It was revealed that the processes of modernization were inevitably accompanied by a significant change in the social status of women. The factors contributing to changes in the gender sphere include the development of the educational system, the complication of religious life, and the development of small business. The penetration of women into areas previously accessible exclusively to the male population inevitably led to a significant increase in the participation of women in criminal communities.

Shapiro B.L. Horse parade in Russian imperial culture. Alexander I and Nicholas I

The development of Russian imperial culture in the first half of the 19th century focused on its external, formal side. The space for its main embodiment has chosen the parade-ballet concept, which was distracted and detached from concrete realities. Updating of combat training was only of secondary importance, the result of which was a stagnation of Russian military art, very visible in the middle of the 19th century. The material for analysing the problem was primary sources: memoirs, letters, diaries, military administrative documents and hippological literature.

Badanov V.G. Organization of territorial medical care in Olonets province (the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries)

In article considers the activities of territorial institutions (zemstvo) of the Olonets province for the development of rural medicine and creation of medical. The social composition of the territorial institutions medical staff in the province and the level of their material support are investigated. The constant growth of “people’s health” financing from the territorial budget is shown. The article presents the mechanism of the territorial medicine transition from the travelling system to the stationary one and provides examples of the territorial doctors’ scientific trips to European clinics in order to improve skills and use modern technologies and methods of treatment. The territorial institutions laid the foundation of the subsequent development of medicine, defined the main directions and ways of further solution of problems of public health care for many decades ahead.

Walczak D. Trade in “God’s mercy”. Icon shops of the Committee of Care on Russian icon painting (1901-1918)

The main topic of this article is the icon shops of the Committee of Care on Russian icon painting (1901-1918). The Committee, founded by the Emperor Nicholas II, had to take care of the growth of the welfare of icon painters of the Vladimir province. For this purpose, they decided to open three icon shops in Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Kiev. The main aim was to serve as an intermediary between rural icon painters and customers from large cities. The author analyses in detail all stages of the organization of icon shops and proves why it was not possible to organize a shop in Moscow. The article raises the issue of commercializing the trade of icons and its consequences.

Tokmakova P.D. The view of the American intelligence services on the political activities of Alexander Kerensky in his immigration

The article considers political activity of Alexander Kerensky in emigration during his stay in the USA. The author analyses the level of Alexander Kerensky’s cooperation with the American special services and their interest in him as a political figure on the basis of the CIA archival documents. It has been suggested that Alexander Kerensky was seen as a tool in the US fight against communism with the help of the “White emigration”, but this attempt failed because of Kerensky’s political death.

Levin Y.A. FBI clashes with the Soviet intelligence service at the end of the 1930s and early 1940s as a factor of development of “Red Scare” in the USA

The first “Red Scare” (1917-1920) seriously affected U.S. relations with Soviet Russia. The activities of the Ministry of Justice, in particular, the famous “Palmer Raids” (1919-1920) enshrined this concept in security forces and American society. However, after 1920 the “Red Scare” in general went down, but within the internal security agencies of the United States, FBI in particular, the biased and suspicious attitude towards Russia and communism continued to dominate. Clashes between FBI and Soviet intelligence in the late 1930s contributed to the development of the perception of the USSR as an unfriendly and dangerous state and laid the ground for the future second “Red Scare” (1947-1957).


Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. E-learning in the midst of economic uncertainty

Distance learning is analysed in the context of the current economic situation characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. The article considers such concepts as “information inflation”, “half-life of knowledge”, “education uncertainty”, “distance economy” etc. The authors show how e-learning helps to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor. The article substantiated the idea of the need for the state strategic support of distance education.

Dmitrieva M.I., Kuleshova E.V. The specifics of teaching disciplines “History of the Middle Ages” and “Culture of the Middle Ages” in the institute of history of Saint Petersburg State University

The article considers the assessment of a long-term personal experience of teaching “History of the Middle Ages” for students specializing in the history of art, and a part of the course devoted to the Middle Ages in the “History of world culture” for students, whose specialisation is “Museology and protection of cultural and natural heritage”. The authors describe the specifics of teaching these courses in the context of students’ acquisition in general, cultural and professional competence.

Kucherova A.M. Modern Russian spiritual prose in literature classes with foreign students (based on the story “Gift” by archpriest Alexander Dyachenko)

The article describes the role and place of modern Orthodox fiction in teaching the Russian literature to foreign students (language proficiency level B1-B2). The author analyses the features of the work content perception by Chinese students on the example of the story “Gift” by archpriest Alexander Dyachenko. The study revealed main difficulties experienced by students in the working process. These include the original stereotypical ideas of students about spiritual literature like texts devoted exclusively to church-dogmatic issues; the idea of the insularity of the image system in the framework of the religious-corporate model; absence of the “partnership” understanding context that determines the content of a number of works related to the literary phenomenon.


Sazonova O.A. About subjects of administrative and legal relations in migration sphere

The article considers a classification of subjects of administrative legal relations in the migration sphere. In a chain of reasoning it is noted that there is a division on collective and individual in the subjects of legal relationship. It is established that some special subjects are given specific authority act. In conclusion, the circle of subjects of administrative legal relationship in the sphere of migration includes participants that characterise only considered public relations, including displaced persons, refugees, compatriots, etc.

Karim. Restorative justice approach in handling minor offense

Restorative justice appears due to the lack of criminal justice system which not running as expected justice value. The criminal justice system is often caused a disappointment and dissatisfaction either for the victim, the perpetrator or both victim and perpetrator. Hence, this study aims to know how the restorative justice approach handling the minor offense case to reach justice. The methodology used in this study is juridical normative with statue and conceptual approach. Required data taken from regulations in Indonesia. The result of the research showed that restorative justice approach has aim to answer the disappointment on the present criminal justice system. Restorative justice approach is done by expressing regrets and apologies to the victim and his family, as a counterpart, the victim and his family forgive the perpetrator. This is done due to reach justice for both parties. Therefore, restorative justice is an alternative justice concept in handling minor offense.

Fiska S., Usanti T.P. The characteristics of imposition of pledge on the trademark rights in Musharakah financing

This article describes the characteristics of the pledge on the right of trademark which is imposed on obligations in Islamic banks. Based on the research, in practice, it is very rare that an Islamic bank accepts the rights of trademark as an object of collateral or pledge with some reasons. One of the Islamic bank, which received the rights of trademark as pledge or collateral for Musharakah financing, namely Bank Muamalat Indonesia. This bank imposes a pledge on a right of trademark and it is different from Bank Negara Indonesia, which prefer imposition Fiduciare Eigendom Overdracht (hereinafter referred to as FEO) or fiduciary transfer of ownership in their financing. Pledge is favourable and it has more advantages in its characteristics for banks and debtors as compared to FEO. Pledge has simple mechanism and its perform execution. In addition, pledge is more efficient especially in terms of cost. Furthermore, in mechanism of the pledge, there is no registration and it is not necessarily in the form of authentic deeds, while in FEO mechanism, there is obligation to register electronically (by online) and original documentation is required. On pledge there is no duty to rescission, but in FEO, there is such a mechanism.


Andrianova G.N., Kibalchenko I.A. The development of specific educational-diagnostic subject texts to explore predictors of intellectual resources during adolescence: problem, background and basis

Based on the Russian language the article is dedicated to the problem of the evaluation tools’ development, assessing not only subject but also metasubject results. Subtests developed for the teenagers on the basis of the Russian language (“Cognitive generalization’’, “Notional synthesis”, “Involuntary categorization”, “Cognitive content of the concept”) are aimed at the evaluation of study of cognitive structures and knowledge and conceptual experience in the Russian language. The subtests are structures according to the principle of psychodiagnostics tools suggested by M.A. Holodnaya for the study of ways of categorical generalization, conceptual synthesis and conceptual experience. There was confirmed structural and external criterion validity (criterion – academic progress).

Litvinenko I.S. The influence of maternal super-care on pre-schooler’s personality development

The article considers the problem of a modern family as a social institution, its importance in shaping the personality of a pre-schooler. Particular influence is given to the question – to what extent a modern woman is ready for the motherhood. The results of the study regard the mother’s set on a child. The article notes the importance of the mother’s figure for the harmonious, comprehensive development of a child. Two forms of super-custody, their effects on a child are highlighted.


Melkov A.S. Church Slavonic language as lingua sacra in Church and culture of Slavic peoples

The paper comprehensively describes the history of saints Cyril and Methodius’ Moravian mission and the creation of the Slavic alphabet, as well as outlines the main milestones of the Slavic written language formation in Bulgaria, Poland, Czech and Rus. The author puts forward the thesis that the sacred language created by the Solun brothers became the language of liturgy and homilies from the very beginning, as well as the language of theology, philosophy and hagiography. The history of the Cyril-Methodius tradition spreading among the Western, Southern and Eastern Slavs is presented by the author basing on the analysis of the ancient legends of the Holy brothers, as well as Bulgarian, Polish, Czech and Old Russian manuscripts and evidences of medieval chroniclers. The history of the Russian version of the Church Slavonic language is separately considered. The language situation in Ancient Rus is analysed with considering the point of correlation between the Old Russian and Church Slavonic languages. The problem of the Church Slavonic evolution and functioning in South-Western and Moscow Rus is studied in detail, as well as the formation of a common all-Russian version of this language in the second half of the 17th century.

Belonogova J.I. Sources on the history of the parish clergy self-consciousness in Russia

The paper considers the main sources on the history of the parish clergy of the Synodal period, gives their characteristics, reveals the significance of these sources for the study of the clergy’s self-consciousness history and the daily life of clerics. The most popular source of the history of the clergy is the clerical records (documents on the service of the clergy). On the basis of their data the statistics on the history of the clergy and churches is recreated. There are also numerous materials of diocesan record-keeping-petitions of the clergy that can help in studying life and material support of clerics. Representatives of the clergy left a large set of memoirs, which are used in the study of lifestyle, research on the self-consciousness of the clergy. The paper presents examples of epistolary genre, diaries and memoirs; it also considers how these sources are in demand in modern historiography. The research gives the main reference books and works that help in the search for materials on the topic of the history of the clergy.


Shustova A.P. The system of mythological characters as a reflection of the naive picture of the world

From the point of ethno-linguistics the article analyses the system of characters presented on the Slavic territory. It explores the functions and distribution of the highest and the lowest mythological characters. Mythological creatures are divided into categories of “good” – “bad”, locative and gender characteristics and functions. The author gives a conclusion about the connection of the naive picture of the world and pagan Slavic views that are depicted in the stable images of the characters in folklore and mythology.

Nikolsky E.V. Genre originality and connection with folk prose in “The Tsar Nikita and his forty daughters” tale by Alexander Pushkin

The article considers the first experience of Alexander Pushkin in the field of poetic fairy tale, practically unfamiliar to the general scientific community, which is known as “The Tsar Nikita and his forty daughters”. The research reveals the connections of this tale with folk prose, concludes about the specifics of the genre nature of the work. Note that this was the first experience of the poet in the genre of poetic tales, except “Bova” (the part of the poem), written in 1814. If we turn to the question of the genesis of this tale, we can distinguish two sources of this text. This is, firstly, people's prose; and, secondly, the spread of it in the early 19th century in lists of erotic verses and poems, acquaintance with whom reflected in early Puskin’s creativeness, including his first experience in poetic fairy tales.

Christensen C.S. The beginning of the 1900s, Russian civilization of the Outer Manchuria seen from the artistic world: Akira Kurosawa’s “Dersu Uzala”, Vladimir Arsenyev’s book, the Russian Far Wild East, American Wild West and Greenland

The article deals with the history and the problems of civilization of the Russian Far East in the beginning of the 1900s, seen from a perspective of a book “Dersu Uzala” from 1923 and two Russian movies of the same name from 1961 and 1975, respectively. How Russian civilization was perceived in the Far Eastern region on the border between Russia and China at the beginning of the 20th century? In a comparison with the Danish civilization of Greenland and the American Wild West, the article will shed new light on the perception of the reclamation of new land in Russian Far East, in nowadays Primorsky Krai. Furthermore, the article addresses the visualization methods the director’s use to express their views on the Russian Empire politics of civilizing the areas around the Amur and Ussuri rivers. The question if the films show a historically correct insight into the period in which the Russian Empire incorporated Wild Far East is analysed.

Krylova M.N. Comparative constructions in Vera Polozkova’s poems

The article discusses the comparative constructions that modern poetess Vera Polozkova is using in her poetic texts. The structural types of comparative constructions that she prefers are revealed: comparisons with various unions, comparisons in the form of instrumental case, using preposition “like”, applying lexical means, genitive comparative constructions, etc. It is noted that V. Polozkova seeks to use original comparative constructions with unusual images, which are consistent with her general poetic manner. The main goal of the author when using comparative constructions is to increase the visibility of the image, the impact on the visual or auditory perception of the reader. It is concluded that although comparison is not the predominant means of expressiveness in V. Polozkova’s poems, its significance in her idiostyle is great.


Buteiko D.A. Historical responsibility in the prism of religious philosophy. A search for philosophical foundations of historical responsibility in Nikolai Berdyaev’s works

The conceptualization of time and responsibility in the philosophical system of Nikolai Berdyaev gives insights into handling a difficult heritage in the religious discourses. For Berdyaev responsibility is a part of an individual sphere, not a collective one. Berdyaev’s understanding of time as infinity, and the possibility of transition to eternity implies reality of doing justice for the dead. Mapping concepts of time and justice in the works of religious philosophers, Marxists and anarchists reveals those specifics of interpretation of the historical process, historical justice and the hierarchy of values is correlated with the belonging to a particular political community.

Anikin D.A. Traumatization of historical memory: European project vs national discourse

The article focuses on the analysis of cultural trauma in the context of the political transformation of European memorial culture. On the example of Poland, the author demonstrates that the design of cultural injuries in modern conditions reveals a more complex picture of the combination of memorial discourse. Mainstreaming the cultural trauma of the partition of Poland and its contamination with the “double occupation” of the Nazi regime and the pro-Soviet government leads to a range of political and ethical problems. Another trend in the design of cultural injuries is the increasing competition for the image of the victim with other post-Soviet states, which causes the need to form the local traumatic discourse.

Linchenko A.A. Historical consciousness and strategies of detraumatization of historical culture in the modern world

The article presents the socio-philosophical analysis of detraumatization and its main strategies in modern historical culture. Detraumatization was interpreted as the cultural practice of reformatting the semantic structure of relations between the past and the present and is regarded as a dynamic process. Detraumatization was analysed in a context in the concepts of “rationalization”, “demythologization”, “cultural adaptation”. It was proved that the socio-philosophical approach to detraumatization involves the interpretation of cultural injuries as a certain side of the crisis of historical culture and historical consciousness. The role of rationality in the process of interaction of historical culture and historical consciousness was revealed. The rationalization of historical culture is the strengthening of its mediation potential, turning it into an active medium of interaction between different configurations of images and practices of the past. The main strategies of cultural detraumatization presented in domestic and foreign literature were analysed. It was shown that the socio-philosophical approach to detraumatization allows us to consider it as bridging the gaps between different spheres of historical culture and moving from the deconstruction of individual elements of the traumatic experience to the “neutralization” of the sociocultural contexts of the influence of cultural injuries (the culture of trauma reproduction).