Ashrapov B.P. Word-building potential of Tajik adverbial prefix no- and its English equivalents

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УДК 81:811[111:222.8]




Ashrapov B.P.

The article dwells on the issues beset with the study of morphological peculiarities and word-building potential of Tajik adverbial prefix no- and its English equivalents.In the comparative languages, prefixes occupy an important role in the formation of new derivative words. Summing up the results of the analysis, the author concludes that adducing word-building potential of the prefix in question forming Tajik adverbs is of many similarities and differences in certain cases. It is worth mentioning that English equivalents of Tajik derivative adverbs formed by this prefix are not identical and the same-formed ones and some of them are used and translated as simple, derivative and composite ones.

Keywords: adverbs, prefix, derivative adverbs, comparative analysis, morphological peculiarities, English equivalents, word-building potential.





Ашрапов Б.П.

В статье рассматриваются вопросы изучения морфологических особенностей и словообразовательного потенциала таджикского наречного префикса но- и его английских эквивалентов. В сопоставляемых языках префиксы играют важную роль в образовании новых производных слов. Подводя итоги проведенного анализа, автор приходит к выводу, что словообразовательный потенциал рассматриваемой приставки, образующей таджикские наречия, имеет множество сходств и различий в отдельных случаях. Стоит отметить, что английские эквиваленты таджикских производных наречий, образованных этой приставкой, не являются тождественными и однообразными, а некоторые из них употребляются и переводятся как простые, производные и составные.

Ключевые слова: наречия, префикс, производные наречия, сравнительынй анализ, морфологические особенности, английские эквиваленты, словообразовательный потенциал.



It is common-knowledge that “each part of speech gained a wide position in the system of morphology of the comparative languages, and has its own research method. One of the issues that should not be overlooked by linguists today is the analysis and comparison of separated categories of Tajik and English languages instruction in the aspect of comparison. Parts of speech are studied and verified within the scope of morphology, and adverb is one of the independent parts of speech, some of its undiscovered aspects need to be studied and researched from a comparative point of view. Adverb is recognized as an independent part of speech in the comparative languages. However, its classification as a special category in these languages is uncertain, their lexical boundaries are wide, and their functional types are diverse. In terms of syntactic and semantic relations, the relevant part of speech often act as an adverbal modifer, which in turn is divided into subgroups: sign, quantity, place, time, etc.” [8, p. 81-89].

It should be emphasized that one of the issues dealing with grammatical and morphological categories of adverb in both Tajik and English languages is the key one in today’s linguistics studies under the angle of comparative aspect. Hence, adverb is considered to be one of the independent parts of speech, which the relevant linguistic unit is backgrounded later than other parts of speech in the languages under comparison. As well as, the part of speech in question is introduced in details and is included into the program targeted at higher educational establishments.

Book review

While conducting the contrastive analysis, we have resorted to the following works, literary productions and bilingual dictionary as reliable sources, including: “English-Tajik Dictionary” by A. Mamadnazarov (2021) [4] and “Lughat-i muxtasri kalimasozii zaboni adabii tojik” (1983) [2], “Temur Malik – Tajik People`s Hero. Muqanna`s Rebellion”translated into English and introduced by prof. A. Mamadnazarov (2022) [7]. We adduced the appropriate examples out of the above-mentioned source in order to bring certain thoughts and proofs. We have also used facts and examples from “Ghulomon” by S. Aini (2019) [1] and “A Book of golden deeds” by Jim Manis [10] in some cases. These sources are of great importance and contribute the key role in the development of comparative linguistics studies.

The objectives of the article under consideration are:

– to carry out distinctive peculiarities this prefix morphologically;

– to reveal the significance of the above-mentioned reliable sources theoretically and scientifically;

– to compare the relevant prefix with its English equivalents.


While canvassing the distinctive peculiarities and the level of usage of the prefix under study, we have resorted the following visual methods, such as: comparative-historical, synchronic-diachronic ones.

Main results and discussion

It is known that “word-building is considered to be one of the ways of word stock enrichment and plays a key role in the development and evaluation of languages of the world and the former in question occupies a prominent position. The essence of word-building and its distinguishing peculiarities in terms of structure and have not lost their importance under the angle of the level of usage as well. Although some basic types of compound words were identified and described by ancient English grammarians. In reference to it, separate models of derivative words in different languages are being canvassed and discussed scientifically [9, p. 5].

Every language has its own particular characteristics that make up various aspects, such as grammatical structure, word-stock composition and phonetic system. Each of the relevant aspects of language needs independent theoretical research. Mostly the grammatical aspect of the language was dwelt, but over time, other its aspects including lexicons and the special system of sounds are studied as well.

In the languages of the world, word-building plays a big role and has a special place among other means of word-stock enrichment. The essence of the word and its distinctive peculiarities in terms of structure and productivity have not lost their importance. Although the principal types of derivative words were identified and described by ancient Indian grammarians, however, separate models of derivative words in different languages are being canvassed and discussed, and scientific literature on the relevant topic is also increasing gradually.

Basically, the term of word-building indicates the process of original words derivation based on words or phrases according to the existing ways and patterns of the language, or otherwise, the process of new linguistic units’ formation possessing a direct semantic link with the initial one. From this point of view, the relevant direct contextual connection is the ground aimed at the emergence of new units as synonyms [6, p. 89].

In Modern Tajik literary language the adverb is explained as follows: “adverb is an independent part of speech, which explains state, manner, time, place, reason, purpose and movement” [3, p. 344]. Tajik original adverbs: soz, sahl, aknun, fardo, peš, der, por, di, dūš, edar, edūš, hameša, hanūz, bisyor, allakay and English ones: tooxele, fast – tez, hеrе – injo, why – baro-i či, always – hameša [q.v.: 5; 8]. For instance: Komandir durbinaš-ro peš-i čašm burda, ba har taraf čašm andoxt va did, ki az se taraf-i zavod, kaltakdoron savora va piyoda ba šakl-i nimdavra šuda omada istodaand (The commander put his binoculars in front of his eyes and looked in all directions and saw that from three sides of the factory, thugs riding and on foot were coming in a circle) [1, p. 210]; Pas az on ohista va malulona az joyaš xesta ba mehmonon ki hanūzdar peš-i dar rost istoda budand, anbūh-i xud-ro čun va čašmon-i xud-ro nimpūš namuda nigoh karda (After that, he slowly and unhurriedly got up and looked at the guests, who were still standing in front of the door... yet ) [1, p. 5].

Based on the adduced examples we can assert the fact that Tajik derivative adverbs savora va piyoda are translated into English as participle I riding and composite adverb on foot. The following several types of Tajik adverbs out of the last sentence, including ohista va malulona and hanūz are used and resorted to as slowly and unhurriedly adjective+suffix-ly (derivative adverb) & prefix+participle II +suffix-ly (mix structural form) and original adverb yet. Hereby, these statements beset with the theme explored are testimony of the relevant part of speech comparatively.

As a rule, the prefixno-derives a large considerable number of Tajik adverbs of manner from nouns, adjectives and verb bases which express the sudden, unexpected occurrence of an action (31 Tajik derivative adverbs of manner totally and quantity term in Tajik) and its English equivalent is common as the adverbial suffix-ly and the prefixes un-; im; non-form a series of adverbs of manner with several parts of speech.

Hence, we will pay particular attention to the Tajik adverbial prefix no- in the term of morphology and the frequency of usage in the comparative languages, (including its English equivalents) based on:

a) the model of the prefix no-+noun: noguzir – inevitably, necessary, nomuvoso/muroso – unreconciledly; nosazo – unworthily, worthlessly, meanly: the prefix no- + noun+-vor: nosazovor – unworthily, worthlessly, meanly: Dirūz hama-i onho nomuvosovu nomuroso raftor namuda, az hamdigar kasosho-i derina-i xud-ro giriftand (Yesterday, they all behaved inconsistently and unreconciledly and took revenge from each other).

Designing on the premise of the adduced examples, we can assert that the relevant prefix participates to form a number of derivative adverbs, but in MTLL, this word-building element is recognized as an adjective and adverb forming prefix, namely, it is considered to be one of the multifunctional and more productive word-forming elements.

The above-adduced examples are taken from “English-Tajik Dictionary” and “Lughat-i muxtasri kalimasozii zaboni adabii tojik” and we did not find any appropriate examples out of Temur Malik – Tajik people’s hero. “Muqanna’s Rebellion” and “Ghulomon”, therefore we decided to translate the Tajik sentence into English. While translating Tajik derivative adverbs nomuvosovu nomuroso, it became clear that the former in question’sEnglish equivalents – inconsistently and unreconciledly,which are based on mix-structural model and it is considered to be one of the distinctive peculiarities of the theme explored.

d)the model of the prefix no-+adjective: noayon – imperceptibly; novobasta – independently; nodurust – untrue, wrong; nokifoya – enough, little; noqulay – awkwardly, uncomfortably; noma`qul – rash, reckless, imprudent, foolhardy, rashly, recklessly; noma`lum – imperceptibly, insensibly; nomuayan – indefinitely, uncertainly, obscurely, vaguely; nomukammal – imperfectly, incompletely, not full, unrestrictedly; nomumkin – impossibly, intolerably; nomurattab – in disorder, unsystematic; nomunosib – incongruously, unworthily, worthlessly; nonamoyon – imperceptibly, unostentatiously; nopaivasta – incoherent, inconsequential; nopurra – incompletely, not fully, imperfectly, insufficiently; noravšan – vaguely, obscurely, illegibly, indecipherably; norohat – awkwardly, uncomfortably, anxiously; nosaheh – inaccurately, inexactly, doubtfully; nosoz – inharmoniously, inconveniently, uncomfortably, unsuitably, inappropriately, awkwardly; notinj – uneasily, anxiously: Vai nodurust gap mezanad (He speaks wrong); ...ya`ne, Otsiz dar pay-i manfiat-i nasiya-i ba dast daromadanaš noma`lum manfiat-i naqd-i dastdošta-i xud-ro barbod medod (This means that Atsiz, while seeking the benefit of the independence, gradually and unknowingly lost that benefit) [7, p. 21].

In the last sentence, the English equivalents of derivative adverbs noma`lumare translated and used as gradually and unknowingly denoting the shade of resemblance meanings. Seemingly, its English equivalents are resorted to adverbs those ones are based on mix-structural model as well.

c) the model of no-+ compound adjective: nobarobar – unequally: Lekin quvva-i vai nisbat ba quvva-i čingiziyon xele kam buda, hameša jangho-i nobarobar meburd. Čingiziyon bošand, payopay quvvaho-i nav girifta ba muqobil-i Jaloliddin hujumho-i puršiddat mekardand (But his strength in contrast to the forces of the armies of Čingiz Khan was quite weak and he always fought at a disadvantage. As for the Mongols, from time to time, they received new forces and attacked Jaloliddin with a greater number of forces) [7, p. 67].

While adducing the appropriate examples we found only the derivative adjective jangho-i nobarobar which means unsuccessful wars in English. However, while translating prof. A. Mamadnazarov resorted to its English equivalent as a composite adverb of manner at a disadvantage.

d) the model ofno-+ number: nočor - willy-nilly: Oqibat sarlaškaron-i arab nočor mondand va baro-i giriftan-i qal`a dar pay-i čorajui aftodand va Molik ibn-i Hozim nom az sarhangon-i laškar-i Jabrail guft, ki čora-i in kor-ro man meyobam (The commanders of Arab army did not know what to do. They searched for another way to capture the castle. A commander from Jabrail's army, named Malik ibn Hazim said that he knew what to do) [7 p. 127].

It is worth mentioning that the prefix no- forms a derivative adverb of manner from the cardinal number čor – four.While translating prof. A. Mamadnazarov resorted to its English equivalent as a simple sentence did not know what to do logically. It refers to the translator`s higher mastership and in the course of the translation of this book he followed to all rules of translational science of the comparative languages.

e) the model ofno-+ verb base: apparently, the relevant prefix comes with the verbs xos and ist forms the adverbs of manner in some cases: noxost – unintentionally, noist: Xayr, zarar nadorad, Xujanazar-aka, –guft Normurod, –čašm-i man ba noxost ba zanon-i šumo aftoda bošad, šumo ba havli-i man rafta qasdan zan-i ma-ro dida oed, harduyamon barobar mešavem [1, p. 413]; After having once parted with him, she suddenly turned back again, ran to him, and, clinging round his neck, kissed him over and over again a sight at which the guards themselves wept [10, p. 174]; - Avval in ki, -guft Normurod xašmginona, - man noxost ba čuquri naaftidam, balki baro-i ba dast darovardan-i xallojiho va čarxu dukho, ki sabab-i nobudi-i paxtaand, xudam ba čuquri daromadam (First of all, – said Normurad angrily, – I didn’t accidentally fall into the hole, but I went into the hole myself to get hold of the spindles and wheels, which are the reason for the destruction of cotton [1, p. 416].

In the last translated sentence, the adverb of manner noxost is translated as the derivative adverb accidently into English.

Adducing the results of the conducted analysis beset with the theme explored, it became clear that the English preposition without is used as the equivalent of the prefix be in many cases:… though such of them as fell into the hands of the Republicans were shot without pity, yet their prisoners were instantly set at liberty after being made to promise not to serve against them again [10, p. 248].

f) the model ofno-+ participle II:noozmuda– inexperienced; the prefixno-+ modal verbs: noxoham – unwillingly; bo dil-i noxoham – half – heartedly, reluctantly’ xohamnoxoham – willy: Ghulomon bo dil-i noxoham az jo xesta ba dastaho-i kaland va tabar will dast zadand (The slaves - half – heartedly got up and grabbed the big handles and the ax) [1, p.76]; Sag bo dil-i noxoham saraš-ro az miyona-i pohoyaš barovarda ba taraf-i jeğzananda yak nigoh kard va boz dar vaz`iyat-i peštaraaš xobid (The dog reluctantly took his head out from between his legs and looked at the barker and lay down again in his previous position) [1, p.103].

In the course of finding appropriate examples it became clear that the prefix no-participated to form Tajik derivative adverbs of manner in the corpus of our study. It should be underscored that we did not find their English equivalents of the translated source, but we found the composite adverbs of manner bo dil-i noxoham which is derived by means of no-.

g) the model of the prefix no-+simple adverb: nogoh/nogah – suddenly, unexpectedly; nogahon – suddenly, all of a sudden, unexpectedly; nopurra – incompletely, not fully, imperfectly, insufficiently; noravšan – vaguely, obscurely, illegibly, indecipherably: Čašmon-i daridajomagon ba dasta-i musallahe, ki nogoh omada ba idora-i ozuqa daromad, aftod va suhbat burida šud [1, p. 266]; Suddenly, however, there was an interruption [10, p. 89]; Nazar ba andeša-i wai ajab nabud, ki ğoratgaron az yak guša-i biyobon ba nogoh baromada oyand (According to his opinion, it was not surprising that the robbers chanced from a corner of the desert) [1, p. 41].

The role of the prefix no- is fully evident the derivation of the above-adduced adverb of manner in the Tajik version of the given examples, however in the second sentence of the English version, the adverb ba nogoh is translated as chanced, and in the second sentence, the adverb suddenly is not translated at all. So, it turns out that the Tajik prefix does not always find its correct equivalent in the English language.

Based on the above-adduced examples one can assert that English equivalents of Tajik derivative adverbs of manner formed by means of the prefix in question are not identical and the same-formed ones, namely most of them are resorted to and translated as simple, derivative and compound ones in English, hereby we are going to reveal their generalities and differences in the table below:

Frequency of the usage of Tajik derivative adverbs

of manner based on the above-mentioned models


Adducing the results of the comparative analysis of the theme explored we can come to the conclusion that the prefix no- is considered to be one of the most productive word-building elements and the relevant prefix is a multifunctional one, because it participates to derive both adjectives and adverbs in in MTLL. Based on the results of the above-estimated diagram, it is clear that the potential of word-building of the relevant suffix is more frequent which equals 56% in the term of quantity. It mostly forms Tajik derivative adverbs of manner from adjectives.

While considering morphological peculiarities and word-building potential of the Tajik adverbial prefix no-it became clear that those English equivalents of Tajik derivative adverbs formed by no- that are not identical and some of them are used and translated as simple, derivative, compound & mix structural and composite ones. In the comparative languages, prefixes occupy an important role in the formation of new derivative words.


Список литературы:

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7. Aini Sadriddin. Temur Malik – Tajik people’s hero. Muqanna`s Rebellion / Translation into English and introduction by Professor Abdusalom Mamadnazarov. Dushanbe: R-graph, 2022. 156 p.

8. Ashrapov B.P. Comparative analysis of word-building potential of Tajik adverbial prefixes bar-, dar- and to- and their English equivalents // Стефанос. 2023. №. 6 (62). С. 81-69.

9. Ashrapov B.P. Some considerations beset with English word-building rules // Образование от «А» до «Я». 2021. No. 4. P. 5-6.

10. Manis J. A book of golden deeds. Hazleton: The Pennsylvania State University. 2004. 260 p.


Data about the author:

Ashrapov Bahodurjon Pulotovich – Candidate of Philological Sciences, Senior Lecturer of Linguistics and Comparative Typology Department, Khujand State University named after Academician Bobojon Gafurov (Khujand, Tajikistan).

Сведения об авторе:

Ашрапов Баходурджон Пулотович – кандидат филологических наук, старший преподаватель кафедры языкознания и сравнительной типологии Худжандского государственного университета имени академика Бободжана Гафурова (Худжанд, Таджикистан).