No 4, 2020

Publishing Date: 2021-01-25


Melkov A.S. Within eight years... “Studia Humanitatis” journal in 30 issues – the history of formation and the modern stage

International Scientific Research Journal “Studia Humanitatis” celebrates the eighth anniversary. The history of the journal began on the 25th of January 2013, when the periodical was registered by the Federal Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Telecom, Information Technologies and Mass Communications (Roskomnadzor). It is very symbolic that on the 25th of January 2021, on the birthday of “Studia Humanitatis”, the thirtieth anniversary issue of the journal (2020, No. 4) has been published. During the last eight years we have published 669 papers and reviews in the humanities. The main aim of the journal is rendering assistance in the development of humanitarian education and science in Russia and abroad. One of the main purposes of “Studia Humanitatis” is the implementation of the international exchange of scientific knowledge, cooperation with national and foreign academic and educational centers with the aim of developing further integration in the field of humanitarian studies.


Christensen C.S. The Vikings and their importance for the North Atlantic (Iceland, Greenland, North America) from the beginning of the expansion in the 9th century until the extinction around 1400

The Viking colony in West Greenland has always interested historians, archaeologists and climatologists. How could the community of 4,000-5,000 Viking peasants survived in Arctic Greenland for 425 years (985-1400), and why did they finally disappeared? Agriculture of the colonists in an Arctic environment encountered serious challenges. The Viking peasants faced these challenges by adapting old agricultural practices under the new conditions. Greenland became the stepping stone for the Vikings, who the first of the Europeans discovered America and settled briefly in Newfoundland circa 1000. How did they manage to colonize the Arctic Zone from Norway to Canada within one hundred years in the 10th and 11th centuries? In Norse Greenland successful subsistence strategies were developed and underpinned a well-integrated settlement. The Viking community had a global significance which surpassed its modest size. In the last decades researchers have been nearly unanimous in emphasizing that long-term climatic and environmental changes created a situation, where Viking agriculture finally was no longer sustainable and their community was ruined. Ultimate colonists’ failure may be attributed the combination of cultural, economic and environmental changes at local, regional and continental scales compounded by hostile relations with the natives.

Leonov D.E. Honorary citizenship as the Russian Empire estate in national historiography

The paper analyses national scientific literature devoted to one of the pre-revolutionary Russian estates known as honorary citizenship. This estate was originally created by the legislation of Catherine the Great in 1785 and was called “notable citizens”. It included the most privileged part of the cities’ dwellers. In 1832 Emperor Nicholas I signed the Manifesto, in which this category of the population was modernized and called “honorary citizens”. Honorary citizenship existed in Russia till November 1917, when it was cancelled by one of the first decrees of the Soviet power. The studying of notable and honorary citizenship in Russia started in the middle of the 19th century and continues at the present time.

Pulkin M.V. The discussion on parish autonomy (middle of the 19th and early 20th centuries)

The article examines the numerous problems of forms, ways and means of reviving the Orthodox parish, raised in the course of a long discussion of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The main topic of controversy among scholars, statesmen, church hierarchs and theologians is connected with the autonomy of the parish, the justification of the boundaries and framework of parish self-government. In the course of the discussion, diametrically opposite positions were emerged. Some authors defended the idea of broad independence of the parish in matters of electing clergy and providing the temple with the property necessary for worship. For others, control over parish property and, in general, over the state of affairs in parishes by the diocesan bishops turned out to be more important.

Shevchenko I.A. “Dry law” of 1914 in city and village: comparative analysis

The article describes the consequences of the implementation of the prohibition known as the “dry law” of 1914 in the Russian Empire cities and villages. The article studies the impact of restrictive measures on the well-being of the population, health status, socio-cultural atmosphere, spiritual needs. On the basis of those years journalism analysis a conclusion is drawn about the differences in the prevalence of illegal alcohol consumption in the city and the countryside under the conditions of the “dry law”.

Nemchaninov D.G. Interwar Poland in the US foreign policy

The article is devoted to the Polish direction of the US foreign policy in the interwar period (1918-1939). The author attempts to determine the role of the United States in the creation of an independent Polish state, describes the importance of American financial assistance for the Polish economy restoration and strengthening the position of the country in the international arena. The article reveals the attitude of US policymakers to the so-called “Polish question”. The study focuses on the American capital involvement in the interwar Poland economy and on the difficulties in paying off the debt obligations by Polish government to US banks. The influence of anti-Semitism problem in Poland on the further development of Polish-American relations is revealed.


Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. State innovations in education and the problem of pedagogical risk

The paper proves the position of predominantly state innovation policy in Russian education. The authors reveal the principles of bureaucratic management of pedagogical innovations and show the risks of individual innovative activity in education. The authors analysed the concepts of bureaucracy by M. Weber, R. Merton and A. Gouldner in the context of state innovation policy in education.

Slavuta T.A. Text as a didactic unit in the representation aspect about the text-forming function of modality

The article presents a text-centric approach to the formation of high school students’ speech-creative skills and abilities. The analysis of the modal-semantic structure of the text is proposed as a way of developing the speech-thinking and text-generating activity of students. The author presents the programme of the semantic text structure research with the aim of the text generation understanding mechanisms. The article illustrates the method of the modal-semantic structure analysis designed to activate speech-thinking activity and form the skills of author’s texts production.


Azis Setyagama. The position of the People’s Consultative Assembly in the constitutional structure of the Republic of Indonesia

The position of the People’s Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia (MPR) as the high state institution fundamentally changed after the amendments to the 1945 Constitution. Previously the MPR was the highest governing body in Indonesia. Nowadays the position and the authority of the MPR in the Indonesian constitutional structure is no longer the highest state institution then is equal to other high state institutions. It is a consequence of the presidential system of government, where the position of all high state institutions is balanced and the principle of “checks and balances” between branches of government is implemented. This paper is a normative legal research examining the amendments to the 1945 Constitution, especially the provisions governing the authority of the MPR as contained in article 3 of the Basic Law. Despite all the changes, the MPR is still being the highest legislative branch in the Indonesian political system. This is because the MPR still has the authority to amend the Constitution.

Haraberjush I.F. Special equipment in law enforcement: concept and system

The article studies the value of special means of protection used in law enforcement. A highlighted hypothesis becomes the basis of the definition discussion and system of special protective equipment consideration. The author describes various approaches to the concept of special means definition. The criterion of formation of the system of special protective equipment is determined.


Kokurenkova P.A., Shishkov V.V. The use of emotional-stress psychotherapy in decompensation of oppositional-defiant disorder among children, manifested by protest or infantile encopresis

One of the most striking examples of decompensation of oppositional-defiant disorder among children is encopresis (protest or infantile). Most often it represents a primitive hysterical reaction connected with its “conditional desirability” as a mean of liberation from any difficult situation for the child, which requires a fundamentally different approach in therapy. In encopresis treatment of an inorganic nature as well as other forms of behavioural, neurotic or psychosomatic protest there are rational, behavioural, family, play and suggestive therapy used together or separately. However, these methods are more effective in combination with emotional-stress psychotherapy used to a certain degree as early as possible.

Staniszewska Ż., Staniszewski M. Permanent instability and the problem of life’s meaning: possible coping strategies during the crisis

The article discusses the issue of psychological conditions during permanent instability. The study raises questions about values and the life’s meaning. The stated topic is considered on the root of basic human needs and historical perspective. The authors reflect on various approaches to solving the problem, coping strategies and coping tactics.


Walczak D. Church architecture in the Western style. Synod of Zamość in 1720 and its significance for the process of church interior latinisation on the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth territory in 1720-1795

The main purpose of the article is a detailed analysis of those Synod of Zamość definitions that directly or indirectly relate to the field of church architecture and interior design. Since this Ruthenian Uniate synod of 1720 set itself the task of unifying the Greek Catholic Liturgy with Catholic Mass, its resolutions also touched upon the issues of church decoration. The author also tries to determine the synodal decrees’ influence on the art practice, by analysing architecture and interior design of the churches built in 1720-1795.

Ponkin I.V. Unbroken and not surrendered... Monographic collection review: “The sufferers for the faith in Christ of the Saint Petersburg land” by M.V. Shkarovsky

The material is review of Professor M.V. Shkarovsky’s monographic collection “The sufferers for the Faith in Christ of the Saint Petersburg land”. The book describes the life and exploits of new martyrs and confessors of Russian Church in the post-revolutionary period all through the Bolshevik terror of Orthodox people. The publication is not a statistical collection, but a work showing the strength of the individual, the spirit and the greatness of the martyrs’ deeds for the Faith in Christ. The author of the review emphasizes the importance of the appearance of this work in our days and its value not only for the younger generation, but also for adults, accomplished people.


Kurulyenok A.A. To the question of the early period Old Russian phonological system description

The article attempts to present the early period Old Russian phonological system. The main attention is paid to the characteristics of the vocalism subsystem in the 6th – 9th centuries. The review is conducted from the standpoint of the phonological units’ classification of different levels proposed by B.I. Osipov; phonemes proper, syntagm-phonemes and paradigm-phonemes that combine the ideas of different phonological schools and directions. The possibilities of combining vowel phonemes, as well as the nature of their opposition, are described and the question of their phonological status is solved.

Krylova I.A. The issues of religious terms’ description in Russian explanatory dictionaries

The article raises the issue of religious terms being introduced and defined in academic explanatory dictionaries of the 20th and 21st centuries. Words of religious discourse are insufficiently represented in explanatory dictionaries, and they are often labelled “according to religious beliefs”. “The Russian Dictionary of the 21st century”, being created at the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia in Saint-Petersburg, includes plenty of religious terms with derivatives that all receive their own definition and illustrations, both free from ideological component. This dictionary also shows the difference between religious meanings and neutral ones, the shift of semantic accents in religious meanings, the difference in the meanings of the same word in different religions and confessions.

Pologova K.V. Metaphors of disease as a tool for conceptualization of “Black Lives Matter” movement in the US media (the case of “The Seattle Times” newspaper data)

This study contains the analysis of metaphors of disease in “Black Lives Matter” movement’s political narrative on the basis of “The Seattle Times” newspaper (May – September 2020). The research revealed the predominance of two conceptual metaphors: “the body politic is diseased organism” and “racism is disease”. The first metaphor is used to intensify the pragmatic meaning of the danger facing modern American society. The second one is applied to actualise the imperative to combat racism and to amplify anti-republican moods among readers.

Bragova A.M., Dragunova A.A. The figure of Lesbia in Catullus’ in Verona poetry

The present article inquiries into problems related to the figure of Lesbia in ancient Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus poetry. The research is done on Lesbia’s archetype known as Clodia Metelli, and her relationship with Catullus in Verona. The choice of the nickname is explained, and also there is analysis of Lesbia’s role in Catullus’ life. The authors analyse the influence of Lesbia on Catullus and describe the history of their love relationships. In addition, Lesbia’s appearance is analysed with the help of literary criticism concepts.

Mekhtiev V.G. Mikhail Lermontov and his “marginal” interpretations: late 19th and early 20th centuries

The article examines the literary criticism about Mikhail Lermontov. These critical works are written on the border of literary criticism, philosophy and journalism. These critical articles do not belong to the “academic” direction; this criticism can be called provincial. The question of possible reasons why these publications mostly went completely unnoticed by the compilers of the bibliography about Lermontov is highlighted. Furthermore, the importance of “peripheral” publications for understanding the creative heritage of the Russian poet and writer is processed.

Nikishov Y.M. When poetry is read like prose. Debunking the opus “Mute Onegin” by A. Minkin

“Mute Onegin” by Alexander Minkin, previously published in parts, now has been completed and issued fully, both in printed and electronic forms. In this context it became clearer that the book is vicious in its methodology. An old technique is used: the verses are paraphrased in prose, so a comic effect is produced. The critic cleverly pulls out the details which he needs and skips those that refute his concepts. For A. Minkin “Eugene Onegin” is speculatively only a Russian literature masterpiece. Actually the critic composes a parody sparing neither the heroes nor the poet.


Poletaeva Y.G. The issue of historical functionality: the role of the subject in the context of the historical process’ objectivity

The article deals with the definition of the historical process, which is supposed to identify the concept of history and purposefulness. The problem of historical purposefulness was formed within the framework of German classical philosophy. Kant considered the concept of purposefulness based on the idea of teleological causality, due to the cognitive abilities of the subject. Hegel solved the problem of historical expediency in the mainstream of the concept of historicism. The content of historicism is the principle that removes the opposition of nature and freedom, ontologically presented in the form of a subject-substance, self-changing and self-developing. The result of rethinking this concept is the idea of historical activity (the subject). Human activity is a source that determines the main features of history as a special form of human existence in conditions of historical diversity.

Anikin D.A. Collective traumas as a subject of memory studies: the specifics of Russian discourse

The article analyses the problems of cultural traumas as a study subject in the framework of memory studies. The author highlights the psychological and sociological interpretation of trauma paying attention to how their interweaving sets the variety of angles for the trauma studying in domestic humanitarian science. On the example of the main works on collective injuries, the specifics of addressing this topic are revealed, and the possibility of applying the concept of “cultural trauma” to the analysis the Great Patriotic War memory is also determined.

Linchenko A.A. Representation of cultural traumas in modern media: between social functionality and institutional inefficiency

Representing cultural traumas in the context of active development in digital media environment the article analyses specifics of the functions and dysfunctions of media as an institution of memory. The author substantiated the idea that further development of digital technologies is a source of new trends in commemorative practices, which contributes to both social functions and dysfunctions transformation of the media environment in relation to the representation of cultural traumas. Based on the analysis of foreign and domestic studies the author made an attempt to identify the specifics of digital media influence on the features of modern commemorative practices. Using the theoretical approach of Jeffrey Alexander the author explored the main stages of the trauma’s narrative formation process as well as the most significant representations of trauma in digital media. Based on the ideas of Dominick LaCapra, the strategies of “working through” and “acting out” cultural traumas, as well as the social theory of Robert Merton the article classifies main social functions and dysfunctions and analyses the explicit and latent functions of the digital media environment in the process of representing cultural traumas.