No 2, 2020

Publishing Date: 2020-10-25

HISTORY

Pulkin M.V. Traditional social norms and value system of the Olonets’s province population in the 19th and early 20th centuries

The article describes problems of the social control functioning as a significant factor in the daily life of the Olonets’s province population. It was revealed that the social control included several main components. Among them the activity of the parish community and peasant communities in maintaining the traditional way of life was a priority. A noticeable contribution to social control was provided by the gradually emerging system of public education. Maintaining social control to some extent relied on the activity of law enforcement agencies.

Makarova E.A. Colonel P.S. Kozlov: personality in the battle for Moscow context

The article describes a little-studied episode of the battle for Moscow associated with the defence of the 17th rifle division (2nd formation) at the turn of the Protva river in October, 18-21, 1941. Based on a wide range of sources the chronology of events preceding the capture of the first division commander is reconstructed. It is shown how the inconsistency in the decisions of the front and army commanders affected the current combat situation. The report on the interrogation of the Colonel P.S. Kozlov captured by the Germans is analysed. The features of the interrogation report as a historical source are revealed. Based on the analysis of the documents the author comes to the conclusion that the content of the war prisoner report on the interrogation doesn’t give grounds to suspect him of divulging military secrets and violating the military oath.

Christensen C.S. The maritime offensive strategy in the Baltic Sea area during the Cold War (1960-1990): the Warsaw Pact, NATO, the USSR, Poland, the GDR and Denmark

From the beginning of 1960s, an occupation of Denmark was a theme in the Warsaw Pact military exercises and manoeuvres in the so-called Cold War. This is connected to a struggle for a maritime offensive strategy, as well inside the USSR as internal among Soviet allies with the aim of securing the fleets of the Warsaw Pact access to the North Sea and the Atlantic in case of war with NATO members. In the GDR and Poland these plans were very important in the national military strategies. However, the Soviet navy also played an important role in abovementioned maritime strategy. But was it really so great in different occupation plans of Denmark? Or was it first and foremost a local strategy of the Warsaw Pact countries in the western part of the Baltic Sea area? The article provides answers to these questions. There is also given a description of the strategic importance of Denmark in the Baltic Sea, and its influence on the Danish foreign politics in decades.

Kyrchanoff M.V. Pēteris Krupņikovs and the “intellectual turn” in Latvian historical German studies of Soviet period

The paper analyses the role of Pēteris Krupņikovs, the Latvian historian, in the historical studies of Latvian-German relations. It is assumed that the ideas of Pēteris Krupņikovs were the part of Soviet historiography, but in fact, the researcher ignored the formal and informal restrictions of historical science in the USSR. The author shows that Pēteris Krupņikovs in his academic activities ignored a hard division of history into national and general. It is shown that the concept of Latvian-German relations history, proposed by Pēteris Krupņikovs, became an attempt to revise both the research topics and their possible results. In general, it is assumed that Pēteris Krupņikovs was among the first Soviet Germanist historians who used the methods of intellectual history actively.

PEDAGOGY and TEACHING METHODOLOGY

Melkov A.S. Textbook review: “Methodology of scientific research and practical analytics” by I.V. Ponkin and A.I. Redkina

The article is a textbook review on methodology of scientific research and practical analytics. The textbook provides detailed and accessible explanations of the essence, nature, and ontology of analytics as a nature of specific mental activity and as its product. The authors describe in detail a number of scientific research methods and applied analytics, as well as the explanation of the significant concepts underlying their organization and implementation. The main feature of this textbook is the system of the material presentation and the form of its explanation, which makes the publication closer to the scientific monograph genre. The textbook is evaluated by the reviewer as a solid, completed scientific-methodological and educational publication, which relevance, necessity and importance is evident.

POLITOLOGY and LAW

Vlasova O.Y. Digitalized authoritarianism and e-democracy: content and limitations of concepts

Contemporary digital technologies make us rethink the basic concepts of authoritarianism and democracy. The article contains descriptions and conditions of existence of both digitalized authoritarianism and e-democracy, which often use common political methods (for example, e-participation). The author highlights the fragility of the democracy concept in the digital era and represents certain conditions of its emergence and effective implementation. The way of e-democracy emergence and development (via civil society platforms or from the state level) is to be the crucial one for its further sustainability and duration of implementation.

Azis Setyagama. Normative-legal regulation in the settlement of disputes for the election of local head in Indonesia

The current direct election for regional heads in Indonesia raises the issue of disputes among the candidates for this post. The settlement of such disputes from 2004 was initially the authority of the Supreme Court, and in 2008, it was transferred to the Constitutional Court, which in 2016 issued a special Law, which mandates a Special Court for the settlement of regional head election disputes. However, until the Special Court will not be formed, the settlement of such disputes will be the authority of the Constitutional Court. This study is based on a normative approach, namely the Constitutional Court Decree No 97/PUU-XI/2013 and Law No 10 of 2016. In addition, a sociological study regarding the existence of a special judicial body that will be formed to resolve regional head election disputes in Indonesia.

PSYCHOLOGY

Staniszewska Ż., Staniszewski M. Perspectives and significance of psychoprevention and psychotherapy of the consequences of global stressful situations in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic, in particular the restrictions and new behaviors associated with it, as well as the emotional stress caused by negative expectations, have led to complex, often non-standard, stressful situations. The article analyses various aspects of psychoprevention and psychotherapy of the consequences of global stressful situations. The authors provide examples of goals, objectives, and indicators for evaluating the results of psychotherapy. The article discusses the approaches and features necessary in psychological work in the current situation of the pandemic.

THEOLOGY

Archimandrite Feognost (Pushkov). “Rightly proclaim the word of Thy truth” [ὀρθοτομοῦντα τον λόγον τῆς σῆς ἀληθείας]. How can the bishop “cut” the word of truth?

The expression “rightly proclaim the word of Thy truth” from the formula of the Eucharistic ascension of the Bishop’s name is one of the most difficult to understand and difficult to translate in Orthodox worship. The paper studies the history of the verb ὀρθοτομέω using and its equivalents in religious dictionaries of different peoples, shedding light on the true meaning of the formula under consideration. The author of the paper finds parallels between the verb ὀρθοτομέω and the “cutting of the Covenant” in the religions and cults of Near Asia, particularly in the Biblical religion, and also concludes the “priestly” interpretation of the Bishop’s ministry in the Second Epistle of St. Paul to Timothy.

Walczak D., Nikolsky E.V. Apotheosis of monarchy by Byzantine models. The iconographic program of the mosaics from Alexander-Nevsky’s Cathedral in Warsaw

This article is devoted to the mosaics of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral built in Warsaw in 1894-1912. 16 magnificent mosaic panels based on sketches by Viktor Vasnetsov, Nikolai Koshelev, Nikolai Bruni, Andrey Ryabushkin and Viktor Dumitrashko constituted an elaborate iconographic programme developed by the byzantynist, professor Nikolai Pokrovsky, commissioned by the emperor Nicholas II. After the demolition of the cathedral, some of the mosaics were lost, and some were scattered in different places (in museums, churches, etc.). Based on the surviving fragments of mosaic compositions and archival photographs, the authors of the article attempt to restore and analyse this iconographic programme and indicate its ideological significance in the context of the Church policy of the last Russian emperor.

Karikov S.A. Reformation transformations in Saxony in the 1520-1530s as a foundation of the Lutheran confessionalization

The article examines the reasons, course, and results of the Reformation in Saxony in the 1520-1530s. The author analyses prerequisites for changes, relationships between reformers and rulers, and various trends of the Reformation in Saxony. The features of Saxony’s influence on other Evangelical territories of Germany are also determined. In conclusion, the development of Lutheran confessionalisation was determined by the strengthening of territorial power positions as a “centre of power” key in Saxony.

PHILOLOGY

Balalaieva O.Y. Linguistic causes of onomatopoeic verbs de-etymologization

This article presents the results of the etymological analysis of ten onomatopoeic verbs, illustrating the projection of the deetymologization theory onto onomatopoetic material. The loss of phonetic motivation is determined on a semantic analysis of the word meaning in modern language by the presence or absence of a connection with the onomatopoetic complex in the core or peripheral semes, where the sounding sema can reveal itself explicitly or implicitly. It has been established that de-etymologization of onomatopoeic verbs is caused by phonetic, word-building and semantic factors. The results of de-etymologization are most evident if the derivational links connecting the verb and onomatopoeia are lost in the modern language.

Syrotina O.O. Categories of space and time in the English terminology of veterinary medicine

The article studies the terminology of veterinary medicine in the English language in terms of cognitive linguistics. The aim of the research is to analyse the epistemological categories of space and time, to determine their functional features in the language of veterinary medicine and to identify the set of tools in English that serve to express these categories. It has been established that the described categories play an important role both in the birth of a scientific concept and in the formation of the name reflecting it. The categories of space and time in terms of cognitive approach are the basis for the classification of concepts in the terminology of veterinary medicine.

Rozhkov Y.H. Structural models of terminological word combinations of the English terminological field “animal diseases”

The article discusses the problem of studying the structure of the English language multicomponent terms in veterinary medicine. The paper identifies the main types of terminological word combinations and phrases in the terminological field “animal diseases”, defines their structural models, and examines the composition component. The author substantiated the prevalence of attributive two-word terminological phrases in the terminological field of “animal disease” in English, the attributive component of which is a qualifier marker that distinguishes the name of an animal’s disease from its group and classifies it into subgroups. In conclusion, the author identifies the reasons for the increase in the number of multicomponent terms and their role in modern special terminology systems.

Syrotin O.S. Structural model types of English terminological word combinations of biotechnology field

The article defines and characterises the structural models of English terminological phrases in the field of biotechnology by quantitative and qualitative criteria. The predominance of three-component terms with a tendency to increase the components in the term due to their constant complication has been revealed. The frequency and appropriateness of these structural models use in the terminology of the biotechnology sphere have been substantiated. The author concludes that English biotechnological terms tend to complicate their structure.

Fludra E. Image of the family in proverbs and sayings of the Russian and Polish languages. Comparative aspect

This article makes a comparative analysis of the family image in Russian and Polish paremias. The author studies proverbs and sayings that characterise mother and father, daughter and son, sister and brother. The material for the analysis was selected from six dictionaries and two Internet resources by continuous sampling. In conclusion, both proverbial pictures of the world reveal the similar lingua-cultural stereotypes.

Safron E.A., Skorohod O.D. Carnival in the novel “Clown Yak” by Y. Bergman

The article analyses the novel “Clown Yak” by the Swedish writer Yalmar Bergman with regard to the carnival role in it. The relevance of the study is due to the absence of works devoted to this novel in Russian literary criticism. The theoretical level of the study is mainly based on the book “Francois Rabelais Rabelais’s creativity and folk culture of the Middle Ages and Renaissance” by M.M. Bakhtin. The carnival is revealed in the images of the main character and minor characters, in the image of the clown house. It turns out that the novel “Clown Yak”, written in the first half of the 20th century, has not only inherited the traditions of folk laughter culture, but also sheds light on the more complex problem of the artificiality of life and its equivalence to carnival.

Pasiutsina Y.N. Vasil Dyatel – Lyavon Kuzhal: a Belarusian in novels by I. Melezh and V. Gnilomedov

The article examines the novels by I. Melezh (“People of the Marsh”) and V. Gnilomedov (“Ulysses from Pruska”) through the central characters – Vasil Dyatel and Lyavon Kuzhal. It is noted that these novels have not only a great deal of common ground but also significant differences in the description of everyday life, habits, figures of the main characters. In particular, the Belarusian nature is studied from the point of view of sociocentrism and personocentrism, so the corresponding type of hero is considered as the type of a “new” Belarusian is analysed. It is emphasised that V. Gnilomedov’s novel presents the main character with a predominant personality-centred principle, while a social-centred principle is observed in I. Melezh’s hero.

PHILOSOPHY

Markov A.V. Gnosticism and Mallarmé: on one translation case

The most original concept of Gnosticism proposed in the Russian scholarship by Marianna Trofimova, takes into account experience of modernist poetry, due to which the researcher reinterpreted the relationship of fact, interpretation, personal revelation and social experience in the early Gnosticism. M. Trofimova brought Gnosticism closer to the aesthetics of symbolism, while her consideration of Gnosticism as a social phenomenon partly ignored aesthetic side of this mystical movement. Aesthetic Gnosticism was completely conceptualized by M. Trofimova’s adepts. On the example of translations Stéphane Mallarmé’s poetry, made by Olga Sedakova, the productivity of such an interpretation of Gnosticism is proved both for the development of Russian poetry and for clarifying the relationship between social and individual aesthetic experience in crucial periods of culturalprogress.

Samoylova M.P. Reception of the Atreides’ myth in “Mourning becomes Electra” trilogy by O’Neill

The article analyses the cultural dialogue of antiquity and modernity on the example of the Atreides’ myth in the trilogy of the American writer Eugene O’Neill. The author of the article studies the writer’s desire to show the spiritual crisis of modernity by analogy with the ancient story. The American version of the reception of antiquity in art culture is a transfer of the ancient plot to the modern author of the trilogy of reality and endowing modern Americans with the features of ancient heroes. The reception of antiquity performed by an American playwright of the 20th century allows us to see changes in the system of values of Western civilization, namely the contradiction in it between the need for love and freedom and social pressure.