No 3, 2022

Publishing Date: 2022-07-25

HISTORY

Pulkin M.V. “To sanctify the heaven and the earth”: processions in the European North of Russia between the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 20th centuries

The article deals with the main regularities of the formation and evolution of the tradition of making processions in the European North of Russia. It is revealed that by the end of the 18th century there was a stable tradition of organizing church processions. Documents show that processions were performed in connection with holidays and other significant events of everyday peasant life, the past of confessional communities. The participation of state bodies in the processions of the cross was taken into account in the protection of law and order. On the part of the Church authorities, only the collection of statistical information on processions of the cross is noted.

Emelyanova E.O. Materials of the British War Crimes Investigation Branch of Nazi atrocities in Norway

The post-war investigation of war crimes in Norway and the subsequent conviction of the criminals played a very important role for overcoming the difficult consequences of World War II, consolidating the principles of the rule of law, humanism, and restoring social justice. One of the most important sources is the Report of the British War Crimes Investigation Branch, which collected evidence of Nazi atrocities against foreign prisoners of the war in Norway. More than 14000 Soviet and about 2300 Yugoslav prisoners did not return from captivity. Among the main causes of death, the document identified starvation, exposure, overcrowding, medical neglect, brutality, illegal executions. Investigative cases, as wee as the accused and the witnesses, were transferred to the representatives of the Allied nations in occupied Germany, the materials were used to convict the war criminals.

Keller A.V. The Soviet-German dialogue on energy as a prerequisite for détente in 1960s-1970s

The Soviet-German economic relations between the 1960s and 1970s are characterized by wide contacts at the private business and official state levels, when the economic policy of the West Germany was being carried out in close cooperation with the “private” initiatives of German entrepreneurs. This connection can be observed in the negotiations held in 1958, 1962 and 1966, as well as before the signing of the Treaty of Moscow in 1969-1970 after the “negotiation marathon” between West German entrepreneurs and Soviet negotiators. “The New Eastern Policy” became a significant instrument for building complex relations with the Soviet Union, although with very different approaches taken by representatives of West German conservative-liberal (CDU/CSU, FDP) and social-democratic (SPD) political camps. Nevertheless, at first this resulted in a gradual and then an accelerated economic integration of the Soviet Union into the world economy. The economic interests of the two countries called for a constructive dialogue. Finally, the emergence of bilateral positive economic dependence between them that rested on different socio-economic and ideological principles forced both sides to carefully handle the pipeline infrastructure.

PEDAGOGY and TEACHING METHODOLOGY

Beshenich C. The Jagiellon dynasty and the birth of education in Poland: a pursuit towards knowledge

The Jagiellon dynasty’s approach to education was based on the values of coexistence, cultural identity, personhood and freedom, which altogether created an atmosphere conducive to the formation of the specific Polish school of philosophy. The article particularly emphasizes the influence of Queen Jadwiga on the beginning of Polish education is highlighted. Based on the historical discussion, the author highlights the values, which fostered the evolution of education in Poland. The influence of the Jagiellons is feels even in modern Polish society, which continues to appreciate the multi-cultural approach of the dynasty’s regard for training and education.

POLITOLOGY and LAW

Azis Setyagama, Edy Sumarno. Ownership of land regulation for foreign citizens in Indonesia

Land use has a very important role in modern life, such as the role for housing, plantation business, agricultural business, mining business and so on. In this regard, problems often arise in Indonesia related to the illegal ownership of land or control over it by foreign citizens. Law No 5 of 1960 concerning Basic Regulations on Agrarian Principles contains the main points of the Indonesian National Land Law, serves as a guide in regulating issues related to land issues. This study uses normative legal research, namely analysing Law No 5 of 1960 in Article 21 Paragraph 1, which states that only Indonesian citizens have property rights over land while foreign citizens may not have property rights. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for special legal rules for foreign nationals who have lived for a long time in Indonesia related to ownership of land ownership rights.

THEOLOGY

Walczak D. Between icon and picture: painting icons in Russia between the 18th and 20th centuries

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of the so-called “painting icon” in Russia between the 18th and 20th centuries. “Painting icon” is a type of icon painting that uses the artistic means characteristic of painting, primarily light and shade modelling and portraiture. The author analyses specific icons belonging to this direction. A connection is established between the emergence of the “painting icon” and social and cultural changes in Russia that influenced the understanding of the theology of the icon.

Khroul V. Stereotypes on religion in media: A case of Muslims in Russia and the USA

The mediatisation of Islam and Muslims as a religious community is gaining interest in media studies due recent political events. The coverage of Islamic structures in institutional media as a particular case of mediatisation is important for understanding the mechanisms of shaping public opinion and mass attitudes towards this religion and its followers. Moreover, quite often the image in the media becomes the basis for political decision-making. This article, based on an analysis of a large volume of publications about Islam from 2000 to 2022 through “Factiva” service, examines its coverage in the two media spheres – Russian and US, drawing attention to the similarities and differences in the formation of a predominantly negative image of this religion. In conclusion, the author offers some recommendations to journalists covering the religious sphere.

Khrul A., Khroul V. Humour in media discourse on religion as a factor of conflict

Humour is located in the sensitive areas of the two basic human freedoms: the freedom of expression and the freedom of belief. The paper is focused on humour in media discourse on religion as a factor of conflict and examines important factors underexposed. According to the results of the pilot project, conducted in Russia, the approaches and attitudes towards humour as a well as a will for compromise and consensus differ in Orthodox Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Catholic and Protestant communities. Authors suggest the mapping the “zone of mutual responsibility” of journalists and religious leaders will lead to elaborating the “pact on humour” between them. For the future research authors propose to analyse the religious and ethnic factors in the formation of a sense of humour and culture of laughter in general in order to have more detailed picture on strictly religious sensitivity towards humour.

PHILOLOGY

Bogatyrev A.V. The image of the tarantula in the language and ideas of prerevolutionary Russia

Spiders have long been part of the circle of creatures that frightened humanity. In Europe and Russia, a tarantula occupied a special place among such phobias. For the first time the word “tarantula” in the spelling “tarant” appeared in the translated Herbalist between the 16th and 17th centuries. Thanks to the “Cosmography” of the 17th century, a Russian bibliophile encountered an Apulian specimen of this spider. The lexeme “tarantula” appeared in the papers of Peter I, in the translation of works by P.S. Pallas we find the word “tarantula”. The bizarre appearance of the creature and the word itself, the vagueness of its meaning gave rise to prejudice and prejudice. In the 18th-19th centuries superstitions about “terrible” and “harmful” creatures were replicated, which were eventually replaced by more balanced assessments. The image of the “terrible” tarantula is now known for the most part only as a means of artistic expression.

Komarov E.V. Comparative analysis of three English translation equivalents of the Russian lexeme “toska”: anguish, misery, yearning

The study is devoted to the ways of translating the Russian language-specific unit “toska” into English. A comparative semantic analysis of this unit and its three most frequent English equivalents: “anguish”, “misery”, “yearning” has been carried out. The Russian-English subcorpus of the National Corpus of the Russian Language has been used to compare the ways of translating lexeme “toska” in fiction. The conclusions are drawn that only in their totality English translation equivalents can be used to convey all the meanings of the ethnically marked concept “toska" into the English language culture.

Ashrapov B.P. Comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and level of usage of subordinate compound adverbs in Tajik literary language appertaining to 18th-19th centuries (on the example of historical writings referred to as “Tuhfat-ul-khoni” and “Zafar-Name”)

The article under consideration dwells on the issue beset with comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and the level of usage of subordinate compound adverbs (SCAs) on the example of the historical writings entitled as “Tuhfat-ul-khani” by Muhammadwafo Karminagi and “Zafar-Name” by Khusravi. It is noted that compound adverbs are divided into two sub-groups, namely coordinative and subordinate compound adverbs. The importance of the theme explored lies in comparison and consideration of morphological peculiarities of SCAs using comparative-historical and statistical methods, determination of their distinguishing peculiarities based on the scientific-historical writings, those ones included into the historical events of various families of 18th-19th centuries. Adducing the result of the comparative analysis beset with SCAs of the historical writings under study one can come to the conclusion that such kinds of adverbs are more frequently used in “Zafar-Name” by Khusravi than in “Tuhfat-ul-khani” by Muhammadwafo Karminagi.

Markov A.V. Pilgrimage ekphrasis: “The Annunciation” by Lydia Alexeeva

The paper considers the poetics of Russian poetess of New York emigration Lydia Alexeeva. The genre specificity of her poems that combine traditions of the ballad and the consideration of the big city as a system of hints and effects of suspension going back to the mood of futurism is established. Unlike other Russian poets of New York, Alexeeva has turned the ballad both as a genre base for organizing an emotional narrative and as a source of unexpected plot solutions. Her ekphrasis turns into a pilgrimage ekphrasis that fits the movement through the museum into the general movement through the big city, thanks to the emotional effects it allowed her to come to terms with the hardships of life in exile.

Adishirinov K.F. Folklore attitudes of Yagub Mahir’s poetry

The paper examines the moral and didactic aspects of lyrical and satirical poet Yakub Mahir’s poetry, who wrote and worked in the second half of the 22th and early 21th centuries in the literary milieu of Shaki city (Azerbaijan). The main object of the research is the moral and didactic aspects in the Yagub Mahir’s poetry. The moral views of the poet, his lyrical works are analysed by subject and genre. The author studies the presentation of various topics based on an ideal idea. The relevance and scientific novelty of the work is due to the fact, that this is the first study of moral views in the Yagub Mahir’s creativity – the national poet and representative of the Shaki literary milieu.

Shpak E.R. The tale of the Semrug in the novel “Zuleikha opens her eyes” by Guzel Yakhina: features of intertextual relations

The article examines the features of plot, compositional, figurative and lexical references between the novel “Zuleikha opens her eyes” by Guzel Yakhina and the insert tale about the bird Semrug. Meanwhile the tale text is considered separately, as an independent artistic unit. In the process of comparative analysis of these works, their numerous points of contact at various structural levels of the text are revealed. The conclusion is made about the importance of established intertextual connections in the disclosure of the ideological content of the novel.

PHILOSOPHY

Christensen C.S. Sculpting in time, space and spirituality: the Soviet film instructor Andrei Tarkovsky and his inner journey through his seven feature length movies (1962-1986)

Every year films of all kinds are produced, and the number of film directors is many all over the world. But among them there are individual geniuses who stand out from the crowd. The Soviet film director Andrei Tarkovsky is one of these geniuses. With his only seven feature length films, he wrote himself into the top history of the film world. The article attempted to analyse and discuss Andrei Tarkovsky’s sculpting in time, space, memory, and spirituality as well as how the director thought of himself as an artist who constantly struggled with the authoritarian powers of the state over art, and consequently how themes of artistic expression manifested in his work. The main question is whether the director’s films are his inner journey? Was Andrey Tarkovsky a dissident in the Soviet Union or not? What is the intellectual and cultural climate in which Tarkovsky operated? An understanding of the prevalence of religious rhetoric and non-conformist art in both Soviet and Russian history is required to comprehend how potentially radical the themes in Andrei Tarkovsky’s films were in the era of the Soviet Union.

Bogdanova V.O., Stolbina Y.D. Socio-philosophical problem of the digital generation representatives’ communication

The article deals with the socio-philosophical problem of the digital generation virtual communication. The authors shows that digital technologies expand human capabilities, allow us to overcome the spatial and temporal boundaries of communication. Virtual communication minimizes stress when interacting with another person, levels the status differences of interlocutors, reduces the influence of cultural stereotypes. Virtual communication complicates interpersonal interaction, because in the virtual world the Other is absent in his physicality. This makes it hard to develop the skill of reading non-verbal information, without which it is difficult to understand the feelings, thoughts and actions of another person and build fruitful communication with him.

Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. Karl Polanyi on the peculiarities of the traditional society economy

The paper analyses specifics the traditional society economy in comprehension by Karl Polanyi are analysed. The features of the traditional society in the context of economic anthropology are revealed. Primary attention is paid to the philosophical and economic views of Aristotle on the organization of the ancient Greek policy. Issues related to the relationship between contract and status, quantitative and qualitative approach in the economy, traditional and market exchange, society and community are also considered. The phenomenon of a fair price is analysed.