No 1, 2019

Publishing Date: 2019-04-25

HISTORY

Shapiro B.L. “To all people wear a German dress and ride German saddles”: Russian rider during Peter the Great's reforms

This article examines the evolution of the Russian rider’s material culture initiated by the reforms of Peter I. The decree of 1701, when it was prohibited to use Russian clothes and Russian saddles, is taken as a starting point. We research the evolution of the European cavalry uniform and horse tack by the military administrative documents. We revealed the frontier stages of this process. It was in 1711-1712 and 1720 when the uniform regulations secured the changes by law. The reforms result reflected in the “Table of Ranks” in 1722. The military uniform and the horse tack became a symbol of the high status in the Russian empire.

Managadze A.D. Teofil Lapinski’s notifications about Georgia

Many works has been devoted to the research of the history of Russia-Caucasus relations. The book “Mountaineers and their struggle for liberation against Russians” by Teofil Lapinski reflects the most dramatic pages of the Caucasian War. Lapinski’s work gives important information about the Georgians. The Georgian regular infantry troops and Georgian police, which formed a part of the Russian Army, played an important role in the Caucasian war. The Georgians undoubtedly were advance-guard of Caucasian forces and successfully participated in every military operation.

Pulkin M.V. Prisons in the Empire: specific features of the Russian penitentiary system in the 19th and early 20th centuries (a case study of Olonetsk province)

The article describes the basic laws of the penitentiary system’s formation in the Olonets province. The author identifies main problems that existed in the operation of prisons in the province as well as the ways of interaction of various departments in re-education and social adaptation of prisoners. The changes occurred in the prison system as results of the February Revolution of 1917 were studied.

Badanov V.G. Zemstvo and museums: experience of museum and local history work in the Olonets province (1871-1916)

The article considers activities of the Olonets province territorial institutions (zemstvo) for development of museum matter in the Russian remote place. Museum activity was one of the directions of out-of-school territorial education, also according to zemstvo it had to increase the educational and cultural level of the population. The territorial museums were created as the practical educational centers for certain industries of territorial activity, i.e. for the system of national education, for the help to agricultural industry, cooperation, medicine, etc. Practically in each district there were established school museums of visual aids, the museums of the local nature and life, “corners of the native land”, exhibitions of hand-made articles of pupils, and exhibitions of the vegetables which are grown up on the school site. Besides within work on development of museum business, Olonets’ activists organized various expositions and also participated in the All-Russian and international exhibitions.

Shevchenko I.A. The problem of the “Pub constitution” in the State Duma of the Russian Empire

The article reviews the issue of the “Pub constitution” which was discussed in the State Duma of the Russian Empire (1907-1912), the issue when rural societies could control the presence of drinking establishment on their territory, a so called “Pub constitution”. It is the right rural societies had before 1890-s when the government started their wine monopoly and continued to take a fee from the owner of a pub for the permission to work in the rural area. The government getting rid of this constitution said about negative consequences (such as drinking). The peasants claimed to spend this money on the village development. Deputies of the State Duma tried to understand this issue.

Norkina E.S. The culture of Armenian philanthropy in Saint Petersburg in the early 20th century

The article studies characteristics of charity in Armenian community of Saint Petersburg in the early 20th century. It appears the main feature of charity in the capital’s Armenian community in the early 20th century. There was a wide geographical coverage of church and public charity activities. The charity, especially in the connection with World War I, involved wide sections of the Armenian population. Armenian students, who helped personally and raised money for refugees, played a significant role in this process. The basis of the presented work are unpublished correspondence within the church structure, personal files of Armenian students, scholarship holders and published reports of the Council on property management of Saint Petersburg Armenian Churches, periodicals.

Ilyin D.А., Mamedov Z.I. Oleg Penkovsky as the first Soviet spy recruited by the CIA

The article analyses the archival documents of the CIA in the Oleg Penkovsky’s case. The authors examined a set of materials that had not previously been introduced into scientific circulation. Documents relating to Penkovsky allowed a more accurate determination of the motives of his actions and the damage that he caused by his espionage activities. The paper discusses some of the moments of the initial period of this activity, namely, Penkovsky’s first contacts with the representatives of Western intelligence services.

Frolov V.V. The activity of the investigation authorities of the Pskov region’s public Prosecution office in the second half of the 1960s

The article discusses the activities of the investigative bodies of the Prosecution office of the Pskov region in the second half of the 1960s: at the initial stage of the period of “developed socialism” characterized by the absence of any serious upheavals in the political life of the Soviet State as well as social stability and relatively high standard of living of the citizens of the USSR. This work is written on the basis of previously unpublished materials and documents of the State archive of the Pskov Region. The author used systematic, comparative historical and historical genetic methods. In conclusion, the work of the investigation authorities of the Prosecutor’s office of the Pskov region in the second half of the 1960s had a lot of problems and shortcomings which at that time were rather difficult to solve on a large scale and speed.

PEDAGOGY

Gerashchenko I.G., Gerashchenko N.V. The issues of moral education in the information society: methodological aspect

The article discusses the methodological issues of modern moral education related to the relativity of moral norms. The authors highlight the main types of morality in the context of the educational process paying special attention to the pragmatic approach to moral education in the conditions of the modern information society and market economy. The modernization of education is linked to the use of virtual space.

Akhmaev O.V., Ershov S.A., Kruglova E.N. General characteristics of military servants’ physical training organization and management

The article presents the results of military servants’ physical training organization study in higher military educational institutions. It is noted that along with established elements of the organization (planning, training of managers, control, accounting) there is currently a tendency towards flexible organization in response to changes in the external environment. In conclusion, it is really important to fill with new content of existing elements of the organization: planning, training of managers, material support, control, and accounting.

POLITOLOGY and LAW

Suparno B. The regional autonomy in Aceh by developing non-violent way

Since the late 1970s the Indonesian province of Aceh has experienced a series of military conflicts related to separatism and the ensuing struggle against insurgents. Yet the conflicts have successfully settled through Helsinki agreement on August 15th, 2005. The government has made reconciliation and reconstruction efforts for those conflicts through Presidential Decree, which about regional autonomy. The strategy of this document consists of state principal effort to avoid violent or known as non-violent way by using persuasive and or democratic dialogue. Thus, in this study, the problems which appear are the criteria of special autonomy in Aceh, and the government’s resolution strategies in developing non-violence according to government regulation. Finally, the result shows that particular autonomy program by providing assistance for whole development as like for health, education, infrastructure, and others. It hopes to give positive contribution for Aceh society development in which will bring the prosperity life and Aceh still become part of Indonesian Republic.

PSYCHOLOGY

Nikolsky E.V., Smolin O.O. The specificity of emotional and professional burnout of the Christian clergy

Relying on the latest psychological research and Orthodox anthropology the article studies the syndrome of emotional and professional burnout and its manifestation among the clergy of the Orthodox Church nowadays. It is a state of exhaustion that leads to paralysis of mental strength, feelings and is accompanied by a loss of joy in relation to life and service to God. The spread of burnout among the clergy contributes to our era, the time of achievements, consumption, new materialism, fun and joy from life that is in direct contradiction to the traditional Christian values. The article suggests the ways to solve this acute problem, which is being studied only in recent years.

THEOLOGY

Christensen C.S. The book of Job – the real meaning of justice, faith and evilness? A Bible scripture in the Old Testament about man’s relationship to God, faith, evilness and the meaning of justice

The Book of Job and the story of Joseph, Son of Jacob, are both renowned as some of the greatest masterpieces, not only in the Bible, but also in all of the world literature ever. The text was written down in the sphere of ancient Israel’s perception of culture, religion and understanding of life. However, the Book of Job is one of the most mysterious scriptures in the Bible. Together with the two other Wisdom Books of the Old Testament – Proverbs and the Ecclesiastes – it is a unique text of the fundamental meaning of faith and justice in the Holy Book. In this article, the author tries to analyse some of the most profound theological and philosophical questions raised in the book of Job, by telling the story of Job from the land of Uz in the frame of the culture and religion of ancient Israel. Moreover, the question how the Book of Job is relevant for mankind in our days will be asked. The question will be tried answered through an analysis of the Russian movie “Leviathan” by the director Andrey Zvyagintsev.

Chernomorsky A.V. Church and magic as rival systems in Early Modern Europe

The article analyses the system of relationship between the Catholic Church and occultists in Early Modern Europe. Particular attention is paid to the reconstruction of the worldview of historical actors. The author pays attention on the folk practice of the Sabbat. The analysis proposes to synthesize a unified system of mutual representations of actors.

PHILOLOGY

Kurulyenok A.A. Typological regularities in the history of phonetic system: about the fate of medium sounds in Proto-Slavic period

The article defines the importance of typological research in examining the history of the phonetic system. It describes such typological pattern as variability of every kind of medium sounds. In Slavic language history the phonetic processes began most commonly in the area of medium sounds, i.e. sonants between vowels and consonants. Intermediate sounds have a special historical role on different stages of development of Slavic phonetics.

Ravochkin N.N. The author in political discourse from the perspective of psycholinguistics

The article reveals political discourse as one of the most relevant objects of modern Russian linguistics in the reflection of the anthropocentric paradigm. The purpose of the article is to clarify and represent connections between the language, the man as his main bearer, and the political sphere for further research of political discourse from the perspective of psycholinguistic and pragmatic aspects. The author notes the continuity of modern linguistic studies with the phenomenon of “linguistic personality”, and the article presents the development of the category “linguistic personality” in conjunction with linguistic philosophy and “the death of the author”. 

Kostyuchenkova N.V. Cognitive axiology of space comprehension by the native speakers of the Norwegian language

The paper is focused on some peculiarities of the objective space mental comprehension in the consciousness of Norwegian people as well as their linguistic embodiment. The author analyses the significance degree of the horizontal and vertical axes in coherence to describing localization and interrelation within the real space as well as the fundamental parameters, categories and factors having impact on the formation of the Norwegian cognitive space concept. The article also differentiate the notions of the “universal”, “cultural”, “linguistic”, “mental” concepts.

Belykh O.M. “Freedom” as a culture-bound concept in works by Friedrich Shiller

The article analyses the concept “freedom” in works by a great German poet Friedrich Schiller. The aim of the research is to distinguish characteristics of the concept. The continuous sampling method was used to collect the data for the study. The content analysis of the noun freedom gives an opportunity to generalise the cognitive structure of the concept. It contains the subject, the predicate, the object, the attributive characteristic of “freedom”.

Dudukalova M.V., Sysoeva O.A. Clothing attributes of the main character in the novel “Anna Karenina” by Leo Tolstoy

The article analyses the attributes of the costume in Leo Tolstoy's novel “Anna Karenina”. The polyfunctionality of the costume in the literary work is based on the fact that it is both a thing and a sign, acting as an artistic detail, a mean of expressing the author's attitude to reality, a mean of creating the colour of the historical era, a mean of plotting. The authors of this work prove that costume details in the image of the main character despite the laconism of the description are an important part of Anna's psychological portrait. In addition, through repeated costume detail the authors give mutual evaluation of the characters.

Sukhareva S.V. Anthropological motives in the Scamander group poetry: to the question of classification

The research reviews the study of anthropological motives in the Scammander group poetry works based on the example of its the most prominent representatives such as Julian Tuvim, Kazimierz Vezhinsky, Yan Lehon, Yaroslav Ivashkevych, Anthony Slonimsky. The attention is drawn to the common and distinctive anthropology features in the Polish lyrics of the first half of the twentieth century, in particular in a period of the interwar twenty years. An important factor in the study of this subject is the time space, since the views of the Scammander group have evolved significantly after the explosion of the Second World War, especially in emigration. Man and art is another important anthropological dimension of the Scammander lyrics. It logically follows from the previous one and reveals the level of relations of the individual and history and cultural heritage. The theme “man and nature” remains the final and unifying link of the examined anthropological material. In the lyrics of each representative of the Scamader group it has a greater or lesser degree of sounding. Particular attention is drawn to the poems of Kazimierz Vezhinsky since the issue of formation of man-geo-humanist has become a creative dominant in his works.

Demidenko E.V., Kniazeva N.V. Structural and functional semantic peculiarities of parenthesis constructions in literary texts by B. Pilnyak

The article reviews the issue of the parenthesis constructions’ functioning in literary texts by B. Pilnyak. The authors give the description of the structural and functional semantic peculiarities of syntactic constructions analysing the language. The uncertainty of the syntactic status of parenthesis constructions leads to problems of differentiation and classification. The active use of parenthesis constructions of different nature reflects the author's style of writing, its innovative and experimental nature.

Gerayzade E.I. The problem of national character in works by Maksud Ibrahimbekov (exemplified in the tale “And there was no better brother”)

In his stories Maksud Ibrahimbekov speaks about life, customs, and atmosphere of places of his youth. Prototypes of his heroes were his friends or the people whom he communicated with. The author is an irreconcilable enemy of meanness and lies, careerism and tearing, lack of spirituality and immorality, falsehood and indifference. The article analyses a problem of Azerbaijani national character exemplified in the writer's tale “And there was never а better brother”.

PHILOSOPHY

Koroleva E.P., Khomutova N.N. The duality of the nature of dialogue in philosophy and medical practice

The article analyses the duality of nature in relationships between the doctor and the patient. This research was conducted in the context of M. Buber’s philosophy. The dual nature of therapeutic relationships may prevent a productive dialogue and a speedy recovery of a patient. As a professional the doctor must find a middle ground in this duality through which he will become an ally in the fight against the patient's disease. The article presents an artistic example of the humane attitude towards a patient from A. Kuprin's story “The wonderful doctor”.

Anikin D.A. Mnemonic practices as a subject of M. Halbwach’s sociology of religion

The article considers prerequisites of formulation of the question about collective memory of religious communities in E. Durkheim and M. Halbwachs's sociological works. The main function of memory is formation of social solidarity. Need for the sacral past started the process of formation of religion as a social institute. In the late works M. Halbwachs passed from the simplified understanding of religion to its analysis as a set of mnemonic practices based on spatial localization of the initial text.

Linchenko A.A. Praxiological understanding of family memory: the topicality of the cultural-historical activity theory

The article analyses theoretical and methodological foundations of family memory studies in the context of the practical turn and the cultural historical activity theory. The author reveals the relationship of historical culture and family memory, and substantiates the idea of cultural mediation of family memory’s reproduction practices. Peculiarities of family memory’s translation are analysed in the context of the practices of work, life and leisure. It justifies the idea that the heuristic nature of cultural-historical theory is associated with the special role of the personality as a selector of facts and events of family memory, features of the transformation of family memory into family history consciousness. The significance of the cultural historical activity theory is also associated with the study of the practice of harmonizing various ways of thematisation of the family’s past.