No 2, 2016

Publishing Date: 2016-07-04

HISTORY

Makarov S.V., Makarova A.S., Kuznetsov V.A., Kudryavtseva E.I. History of use of saltpeter since the most ancient times up to now

Deterioration in the ecological situation causes concern of society and indicates the need of search of innovative approaches to prevent the negative impact on environment. One of the ways to change the current situation is the practical introduction of the principles of green chemistry. The key principles of the specified concept are considered on the example of production and the subsequent use of ammonium nitrate – the explosive used from antiquity and up to now.

Bragova A.M. Cicero on moral decline and necessity of the ethic reform in the Roman Republic of the I B.C.

The article analyses Cicero’s views on moral decline in the Roman society of the first century B.C., and the research of the interrelation between the moral decline and the degradation of the Roman Republic and the discussion of a possibility of an ethical reform in the Roman society in Cicero’s works.

Pulkin M.V. Pain distribution: violence in public and private life in the XVIII – early XX centuries (on materials of Olonets province)

The article describes the basic trends of social and status changes occurring under the influence of the process referred to as “pain distribution”. Traditional culture included a number of constraints designed to reduce aggressive tendencies in the individuals’ behavior. Formation and distribution of urban culture has led to the elimination of the severe restrictions in violence. The state failed to monopolize the process of “pain distribution”.

Maluinovska N.L. First publishing houses in Mykolaiv and their published materials (the end of XVIII – beginning of XX century)

The article discusses the history of development of the first publishing houses in Mykolaiv. Their emergence is connected with the development of shipbuilding, training of marines for the newly constructed warships. The article also highlights and analyses the published materials: training manuals, reference books, pilot’s sailing charts, guidebooks, reports of the public organizations, etc. The attention is paid to the fact that most publications of the Mykolaiv’s publishing houses were connected with scientific and technical sphere.

Karpchuk N.P. Historical retrospection of the USA & Europe relations

Today, the strategic goal of the White House is to control the mechanisms of global governance including the European one. However, its main strategy has not always been like this. The beginning of the U.S. and European relations was characterized by the U.S. policy of isolationism which is outlined in the Monroe Doctrine. Further international challenges forced the U.S. government, despite some disapproval of the Americans, to join the European affairs. This shift eventually led to military, economic and security assistance to the countries of Europe. Modern global problems also require close U.S.-European cooperation, which is not always straightforward.

PEDAGOGY

Akmatov B.M. Reflection and the way of competence development in educational standards of professionally oriented training of specialists in Kyrgyz literature

The article examines problems of the professionally oriented training of specialists in Kyrgyz literature on the basis of competence in the situation of Kyrgyzstan entering the Bologna process. The author accents on a sharp necessity of the updates of both the form and the maintenance of teaching Kyrgyz literature during the Bachelor’s programme, curricula, regulations and positions in accordance with modern requirements combining large achievements in formation of the developed countries and literary-cultural values created by Kyrgyz people. Also the article marks the value of richness and vividness of speech, humour, metaphorical and allegoric language means in Kyrgyz literature. For example, works of Midin Alibaev, Raikan Shukyrbekov, Baidilda Sarnogoev, etc. The author evaluates the necessity of teaching the forms of national emotionally-expressive vocabulary through literature. 

Palagnyuk Y.V., Savostikova K.I. Training as a form of increasing the social competence of youth

The article discusses the features of the role of training in enhancing social competence of young people. The article analyses the notion of “youth” as a particular social group and features of their social competence formation. The author also gives recommendations on using training in enhancing the social competence of young people.

Palagnyuk Y.V., Surzhenko K.S. Social support for students with disabilities in the System of Higher Education in Poland

The question of social support for students with disabilities is becoming increasingly important for many countries, because despite the adopted legislation many areas of public life remain inaccessible for young people with disabilities. In this connection this article is devoted to the study of Polish experience in social support for students with disabilities in order to develop practical recommendations for improvement of this sector in other countries dealing with this issue. 

POLITOLOGY

Pavliuk O.I. The evolution of bilateral relations between the US and Iran during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988)

The author explores the evolution of the methods of the US influence to the Islamic Republic of Iran during the Gulf War 1980-1988. Algerian agreement in 1981 did not become the basis for the settlement of US-Iranian relations in the early 1980s, because the Iranian government continued to sponsor terroristic radical extremist organizations in the Middle East, thereby causing harm to the US interests. Therefore, the administration of R. Reagan prolongs the effect of emergency economic measures against Iran and introduces additional sanctions. After reviewing its neutrality, the US prefers a more predictable Iraq in the Iran-Iraq war and announces Operation Staunch, aimed to cooperate with other countries to refuse to supply weapons in Iran. Promoting greater weakening of rivals of each other was considered as the greatest interest of the US in the war where no country could become the leader in the region and prevent the spread of the American influence in the Middle East.

Mykhaylenko M.V. The puzzle of transit: the institutionalist answer to the disappearance of the “Second World”

The article ponders upon background and outcomes of development strategies chosen by post-Socialist states within the last 25 years, the fundamental limits and opportunities of choices, and evaluation of their progress scaled between traditions and modernity. The problem of development in the former ‘second world’ is being analysed from the viewpoint of, if to generalize, contemporary institutionalist theories in political economy, namely the approaches by Douglas North, Hernando De Soto and the Austrian School, particularly with attention to Joseph Shumpeter’s concept of creative destruction. The political process in the region is colligated through the works of leading Russian political scientists, economists and sociologists.

Tereshchuk V.I. E-PR technologies in political party activities

The article discusses the role of the Internet as an important communicative tool in the field of political PR. The article reviews the characteristics of PR-activities on the Internet and the features of e-PR in the political sphere. Particular attention is paid to the system of political party’s e-PR tools.

Mukhametov R.S. Non-profit organization as a category of political science

The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological study of non-profit organizations. The author proposes to distinguish the concept of “non-governmental organization” and “non-profit organization” (NPO). The article outlines the main features of the NPO. A lot of attention is paid to the typology of these organizations. The author gave an exhaustive scientific analysis of the forms of NPO activities.

Mykhalchuk S.A. On the question of democratization of the electoral process: the essence and instruments of electronic marketing

The article examines the essence and instruments of electronic marketing as a factor of democratization of the electoral process. The author analyses the concepts of political, electoral and electronic marketing. The article outlines the levels of development of electronic marketing in political activity. Electronic marketing is substantiated as a component of political theory and practice. The author pays special attention to the extension and intensification of electoral marketing functions through the use of electronic mechanisms.

PSYCHOLOGY

Liubina L.A. Gender oriented technologies of formation of the future doctors' professional competence (the experience of implementation on the stage of professional education in Medical University)

The article reveals the experience of introduction of gender oriented technologies of forming the professional competence of future doctors on the stage of their education in medical university. The author describes the procedure of forming the professional competence of future doctors, which was conducted within the framework of the personality oriented approach. It also presents the programme and the stages of realization of the gender oriented training and the author’s special course on psychology with the purpose of formation of basic components of professional competence in future doctors.

Staniszewska Ż. Verbal communication as a case of study in a psychotherapeutic process

The article examines the psychological aspects of verbal communication, its role in the process of communication and realization of personality in society. Human speech is taken up as means of expression of individuality and his/her inner world. The features of speech are used in psychotherapeutic activity as an instrument for research of individual traits and communicative behaviour of a person. The development of active and empathic listening is an important part of psychotherapy aimed at the improvement of communicative skills in the intercourse. The important components in the process of research and correction of verbal behaviour are metacommunication and focusing on the process. The psychological prosecution of these aspects of verbal communication affects the improvement of communication efficiency and as a result influences adaptation and development of a personality in the society.

Staniszewski M. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

THEOLOGY

Venediktov V.Y. On the problem of Ethnophyletism: a historical study. Part I

The Holy and Great Council on Crete, 2016 has risen an important issue of Ethnophyletism. Russian, Georgian, Bulgarian, and Antiochian Orthodox Churches delegations were not present at the Great Council and were criticized for Ethnophyletism at the plenary session. The heresy of ethnophyletism was announced by the Council of Constantinople in 1872. Now we can see that it became essential nowadays. The article tells about the origin of this heresy and whether the Ethnophyletism may be decided to be the heresy.

PHILOLOGY

Nikolsky E.V. The family stories in the early works by Orhan Pamuk: ideology and poetics

The article analyses two of the first novels by Orhan Pamuk. The novel “Cevdet Bey and sons” is a family chronicle with a positive ending because here we see the dominance of sequential (linear) presentation of the events that characterizes and distinguishes the chronicle from other genres. In the second novel “House of silence” there is no consistent linear narrative of the events, we deduct the past from retrospective series. This genre is a socio-psychological novel, however, unlike its predecessor, this work is elegiacal in general.

Svyrydiuk L.A. The youth novel as a special kind of genre of literary work

The article is devoted to the analysis of modern youth novel as a genre variety in literature. In the process of study of the modern youth literature the author analyses the peculiarities of its changes and transformations typical for the beginning of the XXI century. On the example of works by individual writers the author considers the main characteristics, among which there is an image of contemporary cultural processes in the world of young people’s lives.

PHILOSOPHY

Mudrakov V.V. The methodological correlation between Nietzsche’s discourse of philosophy of religion and newest religiosity conceptions and ethical programs

The article highlights those ideological and philosophical trends, which have to do with Nietzsche's philosophizing. According to the philosophical studies of modern thinkers Michel Onfray and Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre Nietzsche’s views are interpreted as a projection of contemporary philosophical discourse.

Belyaev E.V., Linchenko A.A. State politics of memory and the values of the mass historical consciousness in Modern Russia: issues and contradictions

The article addresses the topical issues of the current condition of the state memory politics in the Russian Federation. It also identifies key risks and possible strategies of the implementation of the state memory politics in the Russian commemorative space. The state memory politics is considered through the context of values transformation of the Russian mass historical consciousness. The authors also determine the most important problems and contradictions of the further implementation of the state memory politics of the Russian Federation.