Ottoman Empire

Khrul A. Jewish community in Thessaloniki in the 20th century: the threat of assimilation and identity preservation

The paper analyses the fate of the Thessaloniki Jews, who during the Ottoman times constituted the majority, but after joining the city to Greece in 1912 faced the threat of assimilation. Looking for the solution, the Jewish community found itself between Zionist and socialist ideas with sentiments towards the Ottoman as much more tolerant model of the city and the state. Many of Jews chose the third way as emigration, mostly to the European countries and the United States, and only a quarter of them repatriated to Palestine.

Khrul A. The “Greek project” of Catherine II in cultural and ideological perspectives

Referring Russian dream on Constantinople without Ottoman rule, the author analyses attempts of Catherine II to implement the “Greek project” based on two cultural motives: the Orthodox “brotherhood” of Greeks and Russians and the vision of Greece as the cradle of European culture. The paper describes military and ideological attempts of Catherine II to establish Greece as an independent state and shows their political and cultural consequences for Russia and Europe.