Ashrapov B.P. Comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and level of comparative degree of adjective usage in the Tajik literary language referring to the 18th – 20th centuries

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УДК 81:821.222.8

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES

AND LEVEL OF COMPARATIVE DEGREE OF ADJECTIVE USAGE IN THE

TAJIK LITERARY LANGUAGE REFERRING TO THE 18TH 20TH CENTURIES

Ashrapov B.P.

The article discusses the issues of comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and level of comparative degree usage of adjectives in the Tajik literary language referring to the 18th – 20th centuries on the example of the historical productions. It is noted that in the Tajik literary language comparatives and superlatives are expressed in two ways: synthetic and analytical, and the theme explored is of a long history and passed various periods and evolution throughout its historical development. The author comes to the conclusion that in the Tajik literary language of the 18th – 20th centuries the comparative degree of adjective is evinced analytically, namely, comparison is made in such a way that congruent objects are present including the original adjective by virtue of prepositions (especially with the preposition аз-). Comparative adjective are formed by dint of the suffix -тар in the language of the compared historical productions; in general it has some common and distinctive features.

Keywords: adjective, comparative degree of adjective, morphological peculiarities and level of usage, historical productions, Tajik language, comparative analysis, suffix -тар, synthetic and analytical ways.

 

СОПОСТАВИТЕЛЬНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ МОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ОСОБЕННОСТЕЙ

И УРОВНЯ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ СРАВНИТЕЛЬНОЙ СТЕПЕНИ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОГО

В ТАДЖИКСКОМ ЛИТЕРАТУРНОМ ЯЗЫКЕ XVII-XX  ВВ.

Ашрапов Б.П.

В статье рассматриваются вопросы сопоставительного анализа морфологических особенностей и уровня употребления сравнительной степени имени прилагательного в таджикском литературном языке XVIII-XX вв. на примере исторических произведений. Отмечается, что в таджикском литературном языке сравнительная и превосходная степени выражаются двумя способами: синтетическим и аналитическим, а исследуемая тема имеет многовековую историю и прошла различные периоды и эволюцию на протяжении исторического развития. Автор приходит к выводу, что в таджикском литературном языке XVIII-XX вв. сравнительная степень имени прилагательного выявляется аналитически, а именно сравнение производится таким образом, что присутствуют конгруэнтные предметы, включая исходное прилагательное с помощью предлогов (особенно с предлогом аз-). Сравнительная степень прилагательного образуется от суффикса -тар в языке сравниваемых исторических произведений, в целом она имеет некоторые общие и отличительные черты.

Ключевые слова: прилагательное, сравнительная степень прилагательного, морфологические особенности и уровень употребления, исторические произведения, таджикский язык, сравнительный анализ, суффикс -тар, синтетические и аналитические способы.

 

Introduction

It is well grounded that determination of various periods of the language history and its high points of development based on both scientific-historic traces and artistic ones we proceed from the assumption of the actual issues in the field of Tajik linguistics. Into the bargain, it is impossible to create commonly accepted standard grammar without dwelling on comprehensive analysis of artistic and scientific-historical legacy [4; 5]. B. Sharifov lays an emphasis upon the importance of canvassing beset with the history of the Tajik literary language in the introduction to his thesis entitled “Morphological Peculiarities of "Bado`-ul-vaqoe`" by Vosifi” as: “the study of the above-mentioned traces enables us to disclose some issues related to modern Tajik literary language (MTLL) and the ways of its prosperity and extension” [15, p. 4].

The language of historical productions belonging to the 18th – 20th centuries and created on the territory of Movarounnahr has not been thoroughly discussed, although the formers are numerous being preserved in the manuscripts of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan [3, p. 58-64]. Hereby, we decided to dwell on the comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and the level of usage of comparative degree of adjective in the Tajik literary language referring to the 18th and 20th centuries and to make a comprehensive study concerned with the relevant linguistic phenomenon relying on the historical productions written in the centuries in question. Including “Tuhfat-ul-knoni” (18th century), “Ta`rikhi amironi manghitiyau Bukhoro, Isyoni Muqannna`” (20th century) and “Ta`rikhi inqilobi fikri dar Bukhoro” (20th century) and based on the collected materials bearing the above-mentioned traces; here we canvass certain distinctive features of the relevant topic.

The object of the corpus of our study is the comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and the level of usage of the comparative degree of adjective in the Tajik literary language referring to the 18th and 20th centuries on the example of the historical writings depicting different historic events of the Tajik nation gradually. The formers in question are considered to be one of the priceless and fundamental historical sources contained a numerous historical facts and evidences belonging to the periods under consideration.

The aims of the corpus of our study are: to discuss about morphological peculiarities and to determine the level of usage of such kind of grammatical degree of adjective in terms of their function and meaning; to compare the relevance of the theme explored with MTLL; to dwell on certain distinctive peculiarities of the theme explored.

The given article dwells on the comparative analysis dealing with morphological peculiarities and the level of usage of the comparative degree of adjective in the Tajik literary language referring to 18th and 20th centuries on the example of the historical writings [1; 2; 10] in Tajik linguistic studies, for the first time. It is worth stressing the fact that the relevant grammatical degree of adjective in our factological materials are not a uniform in terms of their usage and they are of great importance in the exploration of this category of adjective.

In order to make our study convincible visual method of research was used; at the same time, comparative-historical methods, synchronic and diachronic analysis were resorted to as well.

Principally, in modern Tajik literary language the category of degrees of adjective is expressed by the suffixes -тар (comparative) and -тарин (superlative). However, they differ from the current state with a number of peculiarities at various stages of the historical development of Tajik literary language, at the initial stage of the evolution of Dari-Tajik language, in particular.

Therefore, a number of studies have been conducted on the history and evolution of the relevant linguistic phenomenon [13, p. 178; 11, p. 12; 6‚ p. 143]. The adduced consideration show that the use of suffixes -тар and -тарин in terms of expression is not one and the same at different stages of development of the history of the Tajik language‚ sometimes it is active and sometimes inactive. Widespread use of such grammatical means is studied by researchers of “The History of Sistan” [11], “Hudud-ul-alam” (11th century) [16] and “Ta`rikhi Bayhaqi” (11th century) [12]. But G. Kamolova asserted that in “Majmu`-ut-tavorikh” (15th century)“ comparative and superlative degrees of adjective are not formed by virtue of the suffixes -тар and -тарин” [9, p. 22] this citation being a testimony of the above-mentioned statements.

At the same time, in the Tajik literary language comparative and superlative degrees are expressed in two ways: synthetic and analytical ones.

Expression of comparative degree of adjective

Thus, it can be said that in the literary language of the 18th and 20th centuries the comparative degree of adjective in most cases is evinced analytically, namely, comparison is made in such a way that congruent objects are present including the original adjective by virtue of prepositions (especially with the preposition аз) [7‚ p. 137]. Upon the whole, comparative degree of adjective is formed by dint of the suffix -тар in the language of the compared historical productions, it possesses certain common and distinctive peculiarities some of which will be discussed below:

1. Designing on the premise of the adduced statistical methods we can confidently assert that the most common way of the expression of the comparative degree of adjective is to resort to it by means of the preposition аз=from the relevant preposition occurs both before and after this degree of adjective: …туҳфаи олии даргоҳи ҷаҳонпаноҳ аз ӯ беҳтар наёфтанд [10, p. 268/533]; …ба аламҳои аз ҳар чи шадидтар ҷони ширинро медоданд [2, p. 258]; Муқаннаъ ҳам ба қавли муаллифи “Равзат-ус-сафо” Абумуслимро фозилтар аз Муҳаммад пайғамбар медонист [1, p. 231, 242].

2. Commonly, the sign of comparative degree of adjective, in its turn, expresses comparability of more or less signs of the fact from the historical productions under comparison, such as: камтар аз‚ афзунтар азand зиёдатар аз perform the relevant function stylistically and grammatically: Ба садамате афзунтар аз ҳисоби аҳли шумор мутаваҷҷеҳи арсаи корзор ва мутасаддии разму пайкор шуд [10, p. 64/123‚ 39/74]; …ба истеҳкоми қилоъ ва дуруби худ зиёдатар аз собиқ иқдому таваҷҷуҳ фармуданд [10, p. 117/231]; хоҳ инҳоро шумо сад нафар тахмин кунед, хоҳ зиёдатар аз он [1, p. 266].

At the same time, one can lay an emphasis upon the idea that the sign of comparative degree of adjective is expressed based on the pattern аз…+зиёдатар in ustod Aini`s historical production: …ба дараҷот аз тортуқи аҳли амир Абдулаҳад зиёдатар аст [2, p. 115, 56, 68, 114, 117, 122, 248]; …аммо заъфаш аз ман зиёдатар буд [2, p. 222].

3. Another distinctive peculiarity of the corpus of our study lies in the fact that both congruent and comparable ones are occurred in the sentence: …лабу дандони омоли ӯ фирӯзии бахти баланд ва толеи арҷманд монанди шукуфаи баҳорӣ бихандид ва камон ба писари бузургтар дод [2, p. 46‚ 47]; …дар баъзе қузоту ҳуккоми бузургтар мактубҳои хусусӣ карда [2, p. 145].

Дар ғурраи моҳи рамазони муборак хабари иртиҳоли бародари амҷади (бузургтар – А.Б.)олиҷоҳӣ аз ин дори пурмалол расида ва боғи ҷону мағзи сари муҳиббонро ошуфта ва халалпазир сохт [10, p. 177/352]; Хоҷаи мазкур ҷадди амҷади мананд [2, p. 210]; Тӯра фарзанди аршади – elder, older [14, p. 81] ҷаноби олӣ ва мавлонзодаи моён мебошанд… [1, p. 72].

It is worth stating that in the last sentence амҷад andаршадbased on the Arabic weight af`al is formed with the Arabic adjective which is an expression of the sign of comparative degree of adjective =бузургтар/elder. However, Karminagi used the above-mentioned method more extensively than ustod Aini. Hereby, we can confidently express our own opinion that the reason for such phenomenon is the influence of Arabic language in which comparative and superlative degrees of adjective both possess the same syllable and are used in the forms of af`alu, af`alu min [8, p. 31]. The use of such comparative and superlative degrees of the Arabic language adjective was pointed out by the researcher of “Ta`rikhi Bayhaqi”: Ва ишорат карданд сӯйи хатиби шаҳр ва ӯ марде пир ва фозил ва асан(н)(older – О.С.) ва ҷаҳонгашта буд… (11th century) [12, p. 54-18].

4. As rule‚ in accordance with the language grammatical rules that the sign of that object is compared with others ones several times, the fact that such kind of peculiarity lies in the comparative degree of adjectives of the work evinced as a part of the nominal compound verb: …ҳар киро инсофу диёнат бештар, дуои гӯшанишинон дар ҳаққи ӯ лозиму мутаассиртар аст [10, p. 133/263]; ...мо муътабартар будани ривоятҳои ӯро дар бораи воқеаҳои Муқаннаъ дар боло қайд кардем [1, p. 264].

Moreover, we decided to conduct an analysis beset with morphological peculiarities and grammatical means of the expression of comparative degree of adjectives, which are used both in MTLL [7] and in the language of correlative historical productions [1; 2] written by ustod Aini will consider and present certain distinctive features of them in terms of their functions:

a) It is well-known that in MTLL, the comparative degree of adjective “accepts some words and emphatic compounds” [7, p. 135], in this case the sign of the object is more strongly expressed, as follows:

– an adverbбоз and a particle ҳам: ...муомилаи сардорон ва аскарони арабҳои истилогар боз ҳам беномусонатар, боз ҳам бешармонатарва боз ҳам ваҳшиёнатар буд [1, p. 268]; …муомилаи аскарони ғолибомадаи араб боз ҳам бадтар мешуд [1, p. 268];

– a set of phrase ҳазор бор: …марги дафъиро ҳазор бор беҳтар аз он ҳоли асафиштимол медонистам [2, p. 208];

– preposition аз+аввал(а)+particle ҳам: Алӣ пешкашҳои аз аввала ҳам зиёдтар бурда, халифаро боз ҳам хурсандтар кард [1, p. 279]; ...интизоми мадрасаҳо аз аввал ҳам барбодтар шуд... [2, p. 56]; ...маъхазҳои аз аввал калонтар дод... [2, p. 249].

b) It is common-knowledge that the expression of comparative degree of adjective can be performed at the same time with two grammatical means, namely by dint of the preposition аз/from and the postposition дида. The conducted research showed that such grammatical event was used in ustod Aini’s historical production only once: Азбаски Муқаннаъро марвазӣ, яъне марвӣ мешуморанд, бояд ин деҳа аз Балх дида ба Марв наздиктар ва аз ҷумлаи деҳоти вай бошад [1, p. 233].

c) As well as, the sign of comparative degree of adjective is expressed by dint of the compound prepositions нисбат ба and назар ба in ustod Aini’shistorical production as in MTLL: Зеро Маҳдӣ нисбат ба Мансур бетаҷрибатар ва сустиродатар буд [1, p. 241].

d) Traditionally, expression of comparative degree of adjective by virtue of the adverb нисбатан [19, p. 138]: нисбатан осонтар [1, p. 215]: Чунки Алавиён умуман сода, дар ҳукмронӣ нисбатан суст ва бетаҷриба буда... [1, p. 216].

The level of usage of the suffix -тар in the language

of the compared historical productions belonging to the relevant periods

 

Thus, in the language of the compared historical productions belonging to the relevant periods, the suffix -тар is used to express the comparative degree of adverb and approximate numerals as 161 instances from it in [10] 45 instances (28%), in [1] 89 instances (55%) and in [2] 27 instances (17%) which contains 68% totally. However, the mentioned suffix is used only 75 instances in order to express the comparative degree of adjective include (32%).

The result obtained and conclusion

Finally, the comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and the level of usage of the comparative degree of adjective in the Tajik literary language referring to the 18th and 20th centuries on the example of the historical productions written in the centuries in question including “Tuhfat-ul-knoni” (18th century), “Ta`rikhi amironi manghitiyau Bukhoro, Isyoni Muqannna`” (20th century) and “Ta`rikhi inqilobi fikri dar Bukhoro” (20th century) is considered to be one of the most comprehensive study beset with the relevant linguistic phenomenon. It is worth stressing that comparative and superlative degrees are expressed in two ways in the Tajik literary language: synthetic and analytical ones and the theme explored is of a long history and passed various periods and different evolution throughout its development historically.

Adducing the results of the analysis concerned with the theme explored one can make an assertion that in the literary language of 18th and 20th centuries the comparative degree of adjective is evinced analytically, namely, comparison is made in such a way that congruent objects are present including the original adjective by virtue of prepositions (especially with the preposition аз). On the whole, the comparative degree of adjective is formed by dint of the suffix -тар in the language of the compared historical productions and possesses certain common and distinctive peculiarities in terms of grammatical structure.

 

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Сведения об авторе:

Ашрапов Баходурджон Пулотович – старший преподаватель кафедры английского языка Худжандского государственного университета имени академика Бободжана Гафурова (Худжанд, Таджикистан).

Data about the author:

Ashrapov Bahodurjon Pulotovich – Senior Lecturer of English Language Department, Khujand State University named after Academician Bobojon Gafurov (Khujand, Tajikistan).

E-mail: bahodur.ashrapov@mail.ru.